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  • Abgrall, N., et al. (författare)
  • The large enriched germanium experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay (LEGEND)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: 11th Workshop on Calculation of Double-Beta-Decay Matrix Elements, MEDEX 2017,Prague, Czech Republic,2017-05-29 - 2017-06-02. - American Institute of Physics (AIP).
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) would show that lepton number is violated, reveal that neu-trinos are Majorana particles, and provide information on neutrino mass. A discovery-capable experiment covering the inverted ordering region, with effective Majorana neutrino masses of 15 - 50 meV, will require a tonne-scale experiment with excellent energy resolution and extremely low backgrounds, at the level of ∼0.1 count /(FWHM·t·yr) in the region of the signal. The current generation 76Ge experiments GERDA and the Majorana Demonstrator, utilizing high purity Germanium detectors with an intrinsic energy resolution of 0.12%, have achieved the lowest backgrounds by over an order of magnitude in the 0νββ signal region of all 0νββ experiments. Building on this success, the LEGEND collaboration has been formed to pursue a tonne-scale 76Ge experiment. The collaboration aims to develop a phased 0νββ experimental program with discovery potential at a half-life approaching or at 1028 years, using existing resources as appropriate to expedite physics results.
  • Gakidou, E., et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 0140-6736. ; 390:10100, s. 1345-1422
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health surveillance and inform policy debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of GBD to estimate levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2016. This study included 481 risk-outcome pairs that met the GBD study criteria for convincing or probable evidence of causation. We extracted relative risk (RR) and exposure estimates from 22 717 randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources, according to the GBD 2016 source counting methods. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL), we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. Finally, we explored four drivers of trends in attributable burden: population growth, population ageing, trends in risk exposure, and all other factors combined. Findings Since 1990, exposure increased significantly for 30 risks, did not change significantly for four risks, and decreased significantly for 31 risks. Among risks that are leading causes of burden of disease, child growth failure and household air pollution showed the most significant declines, while metabolic risks, such as body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose, showed significant increases. In 2016, at Level 3 of the hierarchy, the three leading risk factors in terms of attributable DALYs at the global level for men were smoking (124.1 million DALYs [95% UI 111.2 million to 137.0 million]), high systolic blood pressure (122.2 million DALYs [110.3 million to 133.3 million], and low birthweight and short gestation (83.0 million DALYs [78.3 million to 87.7 million]), and for women, were high systolic blood pressure (89.9 million DALYs [80.9 million to 98.2 million]), high body-mass index (64.8 million DALYs [44.4 million to 87.6 million]), and high fasting plasma glucose (63.8 million DALYs [53.2 million to 76.3 million]). In 2016 in 113 countries, the leading risk factor in terms of attributable DALYs was a metabolic risk factor. Smoking remained among the leading five risk factors for DALYs for 109 countries, while low birthweight and short gestation was the leading risk factor for DALYs in 38 countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In terms of important drivers of change in trends of burden attributable to risk factors, between 2006 and 2016 exposure to risks explains an 9.3% (6.9-11.6) decline in deaths and a 10.8% (8.3-13.1) decrease in DALYs at the global level, while population ageing accounts for 14.9% (12.7-17.5) of deaths and 6.2% (3.9-8.7) of DALYs, and population growth for 12.4% (10.1-14.9) of deaths and 12.4% (10.1-14.9) of DALYs. The largest contribution of trends in risk exposure to disease burden is seen between ages 1 year and 4 years, where a decline of 27.3% (24.9-29.7) of the change in DALYs between 2006 and 2016 can be attributed to declines in exposure to risks. Interpretation Increasingly detailed understanding of the trends in risk exposure and the RRs for each risk-outcome pair provide insights into both the magnitude of health loss attributable to risks and how modification of risk exposure has contributed to health trends. Metabolic risks warrant particular policy attention, due to their large contribution to global disease burden, increasing trends, and variable patterns across countries at the same level of development. GBD 2016 findings show that, while it has huge potential to improve health, risk modification has played a relatively small part in the past decade. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  • Heine, M., et al. (författare)
  • Determination of the neutron-capture rate of C-17 for r-process nucleosynthesis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C. - 2469-9985. ; 95:1, s. Article no 014613
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the (RB)-B-3-LAND setup at GSI we have measured exclusive relative-energy spectra of the Coulomb dissociation of C-18 at a projectile energy around 425A MeV on a lead target, which are needed to determine the radiative neutron-capture cross sections of C-17 into the ground state of C-18. Those data have been used to constrain theoretical calculations for transitions populating excited states in C-18. This allowed to derive the astrophysical cross section sigma(n gamma)*. accounting for the thermal population of C-17 target states in astrophysical scenarios. The experimentally verified capture rate is significantly lower than those of previously obtained Hauser-Feshbach estimations at temperatures T-9
  • Graff, Mariaelisa, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity. A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genet. - 1553-7404. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by ~30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery.
  • Rahaman, A., et al. (författare)
  • Coulomb breakup of neutron-rich Na-29,Na-30 isotopes near the island of inversion
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Experimentella studier av exotiska, lätta nukleära system.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • First results are reported on the ground state configurations of the neutron-rich Na-29,Na-30 isotopes, obtained via Coulomb dissociation (CD) measurements. The invariant mass spectra of these nuclei have been obtained through measurement of the four-momenta of all decay products after Coulomb excitation of those nuclei on a Pb-208 target at energies of 400-430 MeV/nucleon using the FRS-ALADIN-LAND setup at GSI, Darmstadt. Integrated inclusive CD cross-sections (CD) of 89 (7) mb and 167 (13) mb for one neutron removal from Na-29 and Na-30, respectively, have been extracted up to an excitation energy of 10 MeV. The major part of one neutron removal, CD cross-sections of those nuclei populate the core, in its ground state. A comparison with the direct breakup model, suggests the predominant occupation of the valence neutron in the ground state of Na-29 (3/2(+)) and Na-30 (2(+)) is the d-orbital with a small contribution from the s-orbital, which are coupled with the ground state of the core. One of the major components of the ground state configurations of these nuclei are Na-28(gs)(1(+)) circle times v(s,d) and Na-29(gs)(3/2(+)) circle times v(s,d), respectively. The ground state spin and parity of these nuclei obtained from this experiment are in agreement with earlier reported values. The spectroscopic factors for the valence neutron occupying the s and d orbitals for these nuclei in the ground state have been extracted and reported for the first time. A comparison of the experimental findings with shell model calculation using the MCSM suggests a lower limit of around 4.3 MeV of the sd-pf shell gap in Na-30.
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