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1.
  • Abate, E., et al. (författare)
  • Combined performance tests before installation of the ATLAS Semiconductor and Transition Radiation Tracking Detectors
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal Of Instrumentation. - Publishing Ltd. - 1748-0221. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) Inner Detector provides charged particle tracking in the centre of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Inner Detector consists of three subdetectors: the Pixel Detector, the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT), and the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). This paper summarizes the tests that were carried out at the final stage of SCT+TRT integration prior to their installation in ATLAS. The combined operation and performance of the SCT and TRT barrel and endcap detectors was investigated through a series of noise tests, and by recording the tracks of cosmic rays. This was a crucial test of hardware and software of the combined tracker detector systems. The results of noise and cross-talk tests on the SCT and TRT in their final assembled configuration, using final readout and supply hardware and software, are reported. The reconstruction and analysis of the recorded cosmic tracks allowed testing of the offline analysis chain and verification of basic tracker performance parameters, such as efficiency and spatial resolution, in combined operation before installation.
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2.
  • Akkoyun, S., et al. (författare)
  • AGATA-Advanced GAmma Tracking Array
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section a-Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment. - 0168-9002. ; 668, s. 26-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation gamma-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. This technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a gamma ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realisation of gamma-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances. These include the development of encapsulated highly segmented germanium detectors assembled in a triple cluster detector cryostat, an electronics system with fast digital sampling and a data acquisition system to process the data at a high rate. The full characterisation of the crystals was measured and compared with detector-response simulations. This enabled pulse-shape analysis algorithms, to extract energy, time and position, to be employed. In addition, tracking algorithms for event reconstruction were developed. The first phase of AGATA is now complete and operational in its first physics campaign. In the future AGATA will be moved between laboratories in Europe and operated in a series of campaigns to take advantage of the different beams and facilities available to maximise its science output. The paper reviews all the achievements made in the AGATA project including all the necessary infrastructure to operate and support the spectrometer.
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3.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Low-mass vector-meson production at forward rapidity in p plus p collisions at root s=200 GeV
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - American Physical Society. - 1550-7998. ; 90:5, s. 052002
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured low-mass vector-meson ,omega, rho, and phi, production through the dimuon decay channel at forward rapidity (1.2 < vertical bar y vertical bar < 2.2) in p + p collisions at root s = 200 GeV. The differential cross sections for these mesons are measured as a function of both p(T) and rapidity. We also report the integrated differential cross sections over 1 < p(T) < 7 GeV/c and 1.2 < vertical bar y vertical bar < 2.2: d sigma/dy(omega + rho rho -> mu mu) = 80 +/- 6(stat) +/- 12(syst)nb and d sigma/dy(phi -> mu mu) = 27 +/- 3(stat) +/- 4(syst)nb. These results are compared with midrapidity measurements and calculations.
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4.
  • Alexander, Stephen P H, et al. (författare)
  • The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 : overview.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Pharmacology. - 0007-1188. ; 170:8, s. 1449-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2013/14 provides concise overviews of the key properties of over 2000 human drug targets with their pharmacology, plus links to an open access knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties from the IUPHAR database. The full contents can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.12444/full. This compilation of the major pharmacological targets is divided into seven areas of focus: G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, ion channels, catalytic receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, transporters and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. A new landscape format has easy to use tables comparing related targets. It is a condensed version of material contemporary to late 2013, which is presented in greater detail and constantly updated on the website www.guidetopharmacology.org, superseding data presented in previous Guides to Receptors & Channels. It is produced in conjunction with NC-IUPHAR and provides the official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate. It consolidates information previously curated and displayed separately in IUPHAR-DB and GRAC and provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates.
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5.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Cross section and transverse single-spin asymmetry of eta mesons in p up arrow plus p collisions at root s=200 GeV at forward rapidity
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - Amer Physical Soc. - 1550-7998. ; 90:7, s. 072008
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a measurement of the cross section and transverse single-spin asymmetry (AN) for. mesons at large pseudorapidity from root s = 200 GeV p up arrow + p collisions. The measured cross section for 0.5 < p(T) < 5.0 GeV/c and 3.0 < vertical bar eta vertical bar < 3.8 is well described by a next-to-leading-order perturbative-quantum-chromodynamics calculation. The asymmetries A(N) have been measured as a function of Feynman-x (x(F)) from 0.2 < vertical bar x(F)vertical bar < 0.7, as well as transverse momentum (p(T)) from 1.0 < p(T) < 4.5 GeV/c. The asymmetry averaged over positive x(F) is < A(N)> = 0.061 +/- 0.014. The results are consistent with prior transverse single-spin measurements of forward eta and pi(0) mesons at various energies in overlapping x(F) ranges. Comparison of different particle species can help to determine the origin of the large observed asymmetries in p up arrow + p collisions.
6.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of K-S(0) and K*(0) in p plus p, d plus Au, and Cu plus Cu collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C. - Amer Physical Soc. - 0556-2813. ; 90:5, s. 054905
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has performed a systematic study of K-S(0) and K*(0) meson production at midrapidity in p + p, d + Au, and Cu + Cu collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. The K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons are reconstructed via their K-S(0) -> pi(0)(-> gamma gamma) pi(0)(-> gamma gamma) and K*(0) -> K-+/-pi(-/+) decay modes, respectively. The measured transverse-momentum spectra are used to determine the nuclear modification factor of K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons in d + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at different centralities. In the d + Au collisions, the nuclear modification factor of K-S(0) and K*(0) mesons is almost constant as a function of transverse momentum and is consistent with unity, showing that cold-nuclear-matter effects do not play a significant role in the measured kinematic range. In Cu + Cu collisions, within the uncertainties no nuclear modification is registered in peripheral collisions. In central collisions, both mesons show suppression relative to the expectations from the p + p yield scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions in the Cu + Cu system. In the p(T) range 2-5 GeV/c, the strange mesons (K-S(0), K*(0)) similarly to the phi meson with hidden strangeness, showan intermediate suppression between the more suppressed light quark mesons (pi(0)) and the nonsuppressed baryons (p, (p) over bar). At higher transverse momentum, p(T) > 5 GeV/c, production of all particles is similarly suppressed by a factor of approximate to 2.
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7.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d plus Au, Cu plus Cu, and Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C. - Amer Physical Soc. - 0556-2813. ; 83:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu, and Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R-AA for Au + Au and Cu + Cu, and R-dA for d + Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1 < p(T) < 7 GeV/c) and centrality. In central and midcentral Au + Au collisions, the R-AA of phi exhibits a suppression relative to expectations from binary scaled p + p results. The amount of suppression is smaller than that of the pi(0) and the. in the intermediate p(T) range (2-5 GeV/c), whereas, at higher p(T), the phi, pi(0), and. show similar suppression. The baryon (proton and antiproton) excess observed in central Au + Au collisions at intermediate p(T) is not observed for the phi meson despite the similar masses of the proton and the phi. This suggests that the excess is linked to the number of valence quarks in the hadron rather than its mass. The difference gradually disappears with decreasing centrality, and, for peripheral collisions, the R-AA values for both particle species are consistent with binary scaling. Cu + Cu collisions show the same yield and suppression as Au + Au collisions for the same number of N-part. The R-dA of phi shows no evidence for cold nuclear effects within uncertainties.
8.
  • Ederle, J, et al. (författare)
  • Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - Elsevier Science Inc. - 0140-6736. ; 375:9719, s. 985-997
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. Randomisation was by telephone call or fax to a central computerised service and was stratified by centre with minimisation for sex, age, contralateral occlusion, and side of the randomised artery. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up by independent clinicians not directly involved in delivering the randomised treatment. The primary outcome measure of the trial is the 3-year rate of fatal or disabling stroke in any territory, which has not been analysed yet. The main outcome measure for the interim safety analysis was the 120-day rate of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. Findings The trial enrolled 1713 patients (stenting group, n=855; endarterectomy group, n=858). Two patients in the stenting group and one in the endarterectomy group withdrew immediately after randomisation, and were not included in the ITT analysis. Between randomisation and 120 days, there were 34 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 4.0%) events of disabling stroke or death in the stenting group compared with 27 (3.2%) events in the endarterectomy group (hazard ratio HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.77-2.11). The incidence of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction was 8.5% in the stenting group compared with 5.2% in the endarterectomy group (72 vs 44 events; HR 1.69, 1.16-2.45, p=0.006), Risks of any stroke (65 vs 35 events; HR 1.92, 1.27-2.89) and all-cause death (19 vs seven events; HR 2.76, 1.16-6.56) were higher in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group. Three procedural myocardial infarctions were recorded in the stenting group, all of which were fatal, compared with four, all non-fatal, in the endarterectomy group. There was one event of cranial nerve palsy in the stenting group compared with 45 in the endarterectomy group. There were also fewer haematomas of any severity in the stenting group than in the endarterectomy group (31 vs 50 events; p=0.0197). Interpretation Completion of long-term follow-up is needed to establish the efficacy of carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy. In the meantime, carotid endarterectomy should remain the treatment of choice for patients suitable for surgery.
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9.
  • Abramowicz, H., et al. (författare)
  • Combination and QCD analysis of charm production cross section measurements in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 73:2, s. 2311
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements of open charm production cross sections in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations are combined. Reduced cross sections sigma(c (c) over bar)(red) for charm production are obtained in the kinematic range of photon virtuality 2.5 <= Q(2) <= 2000 GeV2 and Bjorken scaling variable 3 . 10(-5) <= x <= 5 . 10(-2). The combination method accounts for the correlations of the systematic uncertainties among the different data sets. The combined charm data together with the combined inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross sections from HERA are used as input for a detailed NLO QCD analysis to study the influence of different heavy flavour schemes on the parton distribution functions. The optimal values of the charm mass as a parameter in these different schemes are obtained. The implications on the NLO predictions for W-+/- and Z production cross sections at the LHC are investigated. Using the fixed flavour number scheme, the running mass of the charm quark is determined.
10.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of transverse single-spin asymmetries for J/psi production in polarized p plus p collisions at root s=200 GeV
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - Amer Physical Soc. - 1550-7998. ; 82:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first measurement of transverse single-spin asymmetries in J/psi production from transversely polarized p + p collisions at root s = 200 GeV with data taken by the PHENIX experiment in 2006 and 2008. The measurement was performed over the rapidity ranges 1.2 < vertical bar y vertical bar < 2.2 and vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.35 for transverse momenta up to 6 GeV/c. J/psi production at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is dominated by processes involving initial-state gluons, and transverse single-spin asymmetries of the J/psi can provide access to gluon dynamics within the nucleon. Such asymmetries may also shed light on the long-standing question in QCD of the J/psi production mechanism. Asymmetries were obtained as a function of J/psi transverse momentum and Feynman-x, with a value of -0.086 +/- 0.026(stat) +/- 0.003(syst) in the forward region. This result suggests possible nonzero trigluon correlation functions in transversely polarized protons and, if well defined in this reaction, a nonzero gluon Sivers distribution function.
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