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Sökning: WFRF:(Jonsson Anders)

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1.
  • Wimo, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • The societal costs of dementia in Sweden 2012 relevance and methodological challenges in valuing informal care
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy. - 0065-6755. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In this study, we sought to estimate the societal cost of illness in dementia in Sweden in 2012 using different costing approaches to highlight methodological issues.Methods: We conducted a prevalence-based cost-of-illness study with a societal perspective.Results: The societal costs of dementia in Sweden in 2012 were SEK 62.9 billion (approximately €7.2 billion, approximately US$ 9.0 billion) or SEK 398,000 per person with dementia (approximately €45,000, approximately US$ 57,000). By far the most important cost item is the cost of institutional care: about 60% of the costs. In the sensitivity analysis, different quantification and costing approaches for informal care resulted in a great variation in the total societal cost, ranging from SEK 60 billion (€6.8 billion, US$ 8.6 billion) to SEK 124 billion (€14.1 billion, US$ 17.8 billion).Conclusions: The societal costs of dementia are very high. The cost per person with dementia has decreased somewhat, mainly because of de-institutionalisation. The majority of the costs occur in the social care sector, but the costing of informal care is crucial for the cost estimates.
2.
  • Axelsson, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • The Early Chain of Care in Patients with Bacteraemia with the Emphasis on the Prehospital Setting.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. - 1049-023X. ; 31:3, s. 272-277
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose There is a lack of knowledge about the early phase of severe infection. This report describes the early chain of care in bacteraemia as follows: (a) compare patients who were and were not transported by the Emergency Medical Services (EMS); (b) describe various aspects of the EMS chain; and (c) describe factors of importance for the delay to the start of intravenous antibiotics. It was hypothesized that, for patients with suspected sepsis judged by the EMS clinician, the delay until the onset of antibiotic treatment would be shorter. Basic Procedures All patients in the Municipality of Gothenburg (Sweden) with a positive blood culture, when assessed at the Laboratory of Bacteriology in the Municipality of Gothenburg, from February 1 through April 30, 2012 took part in the survey. Main Findings/Results In all, 696 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Their mean age was 76 years and 52% were men. Of all patients, 308 (44%) had been in contact with the EMS and/or the emergency department (ED). Of these 308 patients, 232 (75%) were transported by the EMS and 188 (61%) had "true pathogens" in blood cultures. Patients who were transported by the EMS were older, included more men, and suffered from more severe symptoms and signs. The EMS nurse suspected sepsis in only six percent of the cases. These patients had a delay from arrival at hospital until the start of antibiotics of one hour and 19 minutes versus three hours and 21 minutes among the remaining patients (P =.0006). The corresponding figures for cases with "true pathogens" were one hour and 19 minutes versus three hours and 15 minutes (P =.009).CONCLUSION: Among patients with bacteraemia, 75% used the EMS, and these patients were older, included more men, and suffered from more severe symptoms and signs. The EMS nurse suspected sepsis in six percent of cases. Regardless of whether or not patients with true pathogens were isolated, a suspicion of sepsis by the EMS clinician at the scene was associated with a shorter delay to the start of antibiotic treatment. Axelsson C , Herlitz J , Karlsson A , Sjöberg H , Jiménez-Herrera M , Bång A , Jonsson A , Bremer A , Andersson H , Gellerstedt M , Ljungström L . The early chain of care in patients with bacteraemia with the emphasis on the prehospital setting. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):1-6.
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4.
  • Jönsson, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Glacial clay affects foraging performance in a Patagonian fish and cladoceran
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Hydrobiologia. - Springer. - 0018-8158. ; 663:1, s. 101-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change is altering temperatures and precipitation patterns all over the world. In Patagonia, Argentina, predicted increase in precipitation together with rapidly melting glaciers increase the surface runoff, and thereby the transport of suspended solids to recipient lakes. Suspended solids affect the visual conditions in the water which in turn restricts visual foraging. The native fish Aplochiton zebra Jenyns, and its filter-feeding cladoceran prey, Daphnia commutata Ekman, were subjected to foraging experiments at three turbidity levels. A. zebra foraging rate was substantially reduced at naturally occurring turbidity levels and the filtering rate of D. commutata was reduced at the highest turbidity level. This indicates that Daphnia may be partly released from predation from A. zebra at the same time as it can maintain relatively high feeding rates as turbidity increases. Lower foraging rates at the same time as the metabolic demand increases, through increased temperatures, may result in larger effects on A. zebra than could be expected from increases in turbidity or temperature alone. Turbidity may, as an indirect effect of climate change, decrease planktivore foraging rates and thereby alter the interaction strength between trophic levels.
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5.
  • Moubah, Reda, et al. (författare)
  • Soft Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism of Carbon-Implanted Amorphous Fe93Zr7 Films
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: APPL PHYS EXPRESS. - 1882-0778. ; 6:5, s. 053001
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the effect of carbon implantation on the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Fe93Zr7 (FeZr) amorphous films. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements on (FeZr)(100-x)C-x (x = 0, 5.5, and 11) indicate the incorporation of carbon in the FeZr matrix, with an increase of the Fe-Fe distance by implanting carbon. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal the creation of Fe-C bonds after implantation. A significant enhancement of the Curie temperature and decrease of the coercivity are observed in the carbon-implanted films. Moreover, the non collinear ferromagnetism of the as-grown FeZr film diminishes upon carbon implantation.
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6.
  • Otero, Jaime, et al. (författare)
  • Basin-scale phenology and effects of climate variability on global timing of initial seaward migration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - 1354-1013. ; 20:1, s. 61-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Migrations between different habitats are key events in the lives of many organisms. Such movements involve annually recurring travel over long distances usually triggered by seasonal changes in the environment. Often, the migration is associated with travel to or from reproduction areas to regions of growth. Young anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) emigrate from freshwater nursery areas during spring and early summer to feed and grow in the North Atlantic Ocean. The transition from the freshwater ('parr') stage to the migratory stage where they descend streams and enter salt water ('smolt') is characterized by morphological, physiological and behavioural changes where the timing of this parr-smolt transition is cued by photoperiod and water temperature. Environmental conditions in the freshwater habitat control the downstream migration and contribute to within- and among-river variation in migratory timing. Moreover, the timing of the freshwater emigration has likely evolved to meet environmental conditions in the ocean as these affect growth and survival of the post-smolts. Using generalized additive mixed-effects modelling, we analysed spatio-temporal variations in the dates of downstream smolt migration in 67 rivers throughout the North Atlantic during the last five decades and found that migrations were earlier in populations in the east than the west. After accounting for this spatial effect, the initiation of the downstream migration among rivers was positively associated with freshwater temperatures, up to about 10 °C and levelling off at higher values, and with sea-surface temperatures. Earlier migration occurred when river discharge levels were low but increasing. On average, the initiation of the smolt seaward migration has occurred 2.5 days earlier per decade throughout the basin of the North Atlantic. This shift in phenology matches changes in air, river, and ocean temperatures, suggesting that Atlantic salmon emigration is responding to the current global climate changes.
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7.
  • Watz, Johan, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Ice cover alters the behavior and stress level of brown trout Salmo trutta
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology. - Oxford : Oxford University Press. - 1045-2249. ; 26:3, s. 820-827
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surface ice in rivers and lakes buffers the thermal environment and provides overhead cover, protecting aquatic animals from terrestrial predators. We tested if surface ice influenced the behavior (swimming activity, aggressive encounters, and number of food items eaten) and stress level (coloration of eyes and body) of stream-living brown trout Salmo trutta at temperatures of 3–4 °C in indoor experimental flumes. We hypothesized that an individual’s resting metabolic rate (RMR, as measured by resting ventilation rate) would affect winter behavior. Therefore, groups of 4 trout, consisting of individuals with high, low, or mixed (2 individuals each) RMR, were exposed to experimental conditions with or without ice cover. Ice cover reduced stress responses, as evaluated by body coloration. Also, trout in low RMR groups had a paler body color than those in both mixed and high RMR groups. Trout increased their swimming activity under ice cover, with the highest activity found in high RMR groups. Ice cover increased the number of aggressive encounters but did not influence the number of drifting food items taken by each group. In mixed RMR groups, however, single individuals were better able to monopolize food than in the other groups. As the presence of surface ice increases the activity level and reduces stress in stream-living trout, ice cover should influence their energy budgets and production. The results should be viewed in light of ongoing global warming that reduces the duration of ice cover, especially at high latitudes and altitudes.
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9.
  • Ambjörnsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Prehospital suspicion and identification of adult septic patients Experiences of a screening tool
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Sepsis is life threatening and requires urgent healthcare to reduce suffering and death. Therefore it is important that septic patients are identified early to enable treatment.Aim: To investigate to what extent EMS personnel identified patients with sepsis using the “BAS 90-30-90” model, and to describe assessments and medical procedures that were undertaken by the personnel.Methods: This was a retrospective study where 185 EMS medical records were reviewed. The inclusion was based on patients who were later diagnosed with sepsis in the hospital.Results: A physician assessed the patients in 74 of the EMS cases, which lead to exclusion of these records in regard to the EMS personnel’s ability to identify sepsis. The personnel documented suspicion of severe sepsis in eight (n=8) of the remaining 111 records (7.2%). The proportion of patients ˃65 years of age was 73% (n=135) of which 37% (n=50) were over 80 years old. Thirty-nine percent (39%, n=72) were females. The personnel documented blood pressure in 91% (n=168), respiratory rate in 76% (n=140), saturation in 100% (n=185), temperature in 76% (n=141), and heart rate in 94% (n=174) of the records. Systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg was documented in 14,2% (n=24), respiratory rate ˃30 in 36% (n=50), saturation <90 in 49%  (n=91), temperature >38°C in 37.6% (n=53), and heart rate ˃90 in 70% (n=121) of the records. Documented medical procedures and treatments were intravenous lines (70%, n=130), intravenous fluids (10%, n=19) and administration of oxygen (72%, n=133).Conclusion: The EMS personnel identified only a few septic patients with the help of the BAS 90-30-90 model when all three criteria would be met for severe sepsis. Either advanced age (>65 years), fever (>38°C) or tachypnea (˃20 breaths/min) appeared to increase the personnel’s suspicion of sepsis. Oxygen, but not intravenous fluids, was given in an adequate way.
10.
  • Andersson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Assaying cardiac biomarkers for toxicity testing using biosensing and cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY. - Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.. - 0168-1656. ; 150:1, s. 175-181
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived cardiomyocytes are in the present study being used for testing drug-induced cardiotoxicity in a biosensor set-up. The design of an in vitro testing alternative provides a novel opportunity to surpass previous methods based on rodent cells or cell lines due to its significantly higher toxicological relevance. In this report we demonstrate how hESC-derived cardiomyocytes release detectable levels of two clinically decisive cardiac biomarkers, cardiac troponin T and fatty acid binding protein 3, when the cardiac cells are exposed to the well-known cardioactive drug compound. doxorubicin. The release is monitored by the immuno-biosensor technique surface plasmon resonance, particularly appropriate due to its capacity for parallel and high-throughput analysis in complex media.
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