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Sökning: WFRF:(Jonsson Anders) > Konferensbidrag

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1.
  • Ambjörnsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Prehospital suspicion and identification of adult septic patients Experiences of a screening tool
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Sepsis is life threatening and requires urgent healthcare to reduce suffering and death. Therefore it is important that septic patients are identified early to enable treatment.Aim: To investigate to what extent EMS personnel identified patients with sepsis using the “BAS 90-30-90” model, and to describe assessments and medical procedures that were undertaken by the personnel.Methods: This was a retrospective study where 185 EMS medical records were reviewed. The inclusion was based on patients who were later diagnosed with sepsis in the hospital.Results: A physician assessed the patients in 74 of the EMS cases, which lead to exclusion of these records in regard to the EMS personnel’s ability to identify sepsis. The personnel documented suspicion of severe sepsis in eight (n=8) of the remaining 111 records (7.2%). The proportion of patients ˃65 years of age was 73% (n=135) of which 37% (n=50) were over 80 years old. Thirty-nine percent (39%, n=72) were females. The personnel documented blood pressure in 91% (n=168), respiratory rate in 76% (n=140), saturation in 100% (n=185), temperature in 76% (n=141), and heart rate in 94% (n=174) of the records. Systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg was documented in 14,2% (n=24), respiratory rate ˃30 in 36% (n=50), saturation <90 in 49%  (n=91), temperature >38°C in 37.6% (n=53), and heart rate ˃90 in 70% (n=121) of the records. Documented medical procedures and treatments were intravenous lines (70%, n=130), intravenous fluids (10%, n=19) and administration of oxygen (72%, n=133).Conclusion: The EMS personnel identified only a few septic patients with the help of the BAS 90-30-90 model when all three criteria would be met for severe sepsis. Either advanced age (>65 years), fever (>38°C) or tachypnea (˃20 breaths/min) appeared to increase the personnel’s suspicion of sepsis. Oxygen, but not intravenous fluids, was given in an adequate way.
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3.
  • Bäckström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • From Macro Plans to Automata Plans
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: ECAI 2012. 20th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 27-31 2012,  August, Montpellier, France. - 978-1-61499-097-0 - 978-1-61499-098-7 ; s. 91-96
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Macros have a long-standing role in planning as a tool for representing repeating subsequences of operators. Macros are useful both for guiding search towards a solution and for representing plans compactly. In this paper we introduce automata plans which consist of hierarchies of finite state automata. Automata plans can be viewed as an extension of macros that enables parametrization and branching. We provide several examples of the utility of automata plans, and prove that automata plans are strictly more expressive than macro plans. We also prove that automata plans admit polynomialtime sequential access of the operators in the underlying “flat” plan, and identify a subset of automata plans that admit polynomial-time random access. Finally, we compare automata plans with other representations allowing polynomial-time sequential access.
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4.
  • Bäckström, Christer, et al. (författare)
  • Macros, Reactive Plans and Compact Representations
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: ECAI 2012. 20th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence 27-31 August 2+12, Montpellier, France. - 978-1-61499-097-0 - 978-1-61499-098-7 ; s. 85-90
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use and study of compact representations of objects is widespread in computer science. AI planning can be viewed as the problem of finding a path in a graph that is implicitly described by a compact representation in a planning language. However, compact representations of the path itself (the plan) have not received much attention in the literature. Although both macro plans and reactive plans can be considered as such compact representations, little emphasis has been placed on this aspect in earlier work. There are also compact plan representations that are defined by their access properties, for instance, that they have efficient random access or efficient sequential access. We formally compare two such concepts with macro plans and reactive plans, viewed as compact representations, and provide a complete map of the relationships between them.
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5.
  • Jonsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • When Acyclicity is not Enough: Limitations of the Causal Graph
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling. - AAAI Press. - 978-1-57735-609-7 ; s. 117-125
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Causal graphs are widely used in planning to capture the internal  structure of planning instances. In the past, causal graphs have been exploited to generate hierarchical plans, to compute heuristics, and  to identify classes of planning instances that are easy to solve. It  is generally believed that planning is easier when the causal graph is acyclic. In this paper we show that this is not true in the worst  case, proving that the problem of plan existence is PSPACE-complete  even when the causal graph is acyclic. Since the variables of the  planning instances in our reduction are propositional, this result  applies to STRIPS planning with negative pre-conditions. Having  established that planning is hard for acyclic causal graphs, we study  a subclass of planning instances with acyclic causal graphs whose  variables have strongly connected domain transition graphs. For this  class, we show that plan existence is easy, but that bounded plan  existence is hard, implying that optimal planning is significantly  harder than satisficing planning for this class.
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6.
  • Akambih Tajam, Joseph, et al. (författare)
  • SMALL SCALE IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATIONOF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SOIL –SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: ECO-TECH´10, 22-24 November 2010, Kalmar, Sweden : International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmentaland Economic Effects. ; s. 827-835
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Spillage of diesel oil and other petroleum products is a commonly creating need for siteremediation of contaminated soils. In Sweden the most common remediation action isexcavation of the contaminated soil and off site biological treatment by composting.However, a number of small sites spread out in rural areas end up low on priority lists, andwill not be attended to within foreseeable future if ever. For such areas a low cost, easy toapply remediation techniques would be of interest. Enhanced bioremediation of dieselcontaminants in soil by whey addition has been demonstrated in lab scale. Whey is a byproductfrom cheese production. A first pilot remediation trial on an actual site in Gäddede,County of Jämtland, was started the summer of 2010. Using this site as a case study ascreening life cycle assessment model has been set up. The goal of the study was toinvestigate the environmental performance of the whey method, to benchmark the wheymethod toward the excavation and composting practice and to identify environmental hotspots in the whey treatment life cycle. The study aims at establishing if further work shouldbe put into developing the method, or if the environmental performance is such that the wheymethod should be abandoned. It should be noted that even with a slightly worseenvironmental performance compared to other remediation alternatives whey treatment couldstill be of interest, since the small scale sites in rural areas we talk about here otherwise mostoften would not be attended to.Results from the screening life cycle assessment indicate a rather good environmentalperformance of the whey method, partly depending on impact category considered. For thewhey method, impacts from farming activities in the milk production chain allocated to thewhey give significant contributions. Transportation gives important impacts from both thewhey method and the excavation and off site composting, thus logistics should always beconsidered and optimized. The whey on-site treatment could be an interesting alternative forbioremediation especially at sites that would not otherwise be treated, due to small size orremote location.
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8.
  • Östberg, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • Enhanced biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons in soil by the addition of fermented whey
  • 2005
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Industrial organic byproducts such as whey or fermented whey contain easily accessible carbon and micronutrients which could be used to stimulate microbial degradation of hazardous organic contaminants in soil. In this work we have investigated the possibility to use fermented whey as a growth supplement to enhance the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons in soil. Experiments were carried out with two soils, a sand soil and a loamy sand soil, contaminated with diesel fuel at a concentration of 5000 mg kg-1 soil dry weight (dw). Fermented whey was added at different dosages to nutrient amended soil microcosms. Petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization was monitored by analysis of evolved 14CO2 from added 14C-labeled n-hexadecane. Mineralization curves were fitted to a three-half-order kinetics model. Enhanced mineralization was observed in sand soil at 7 and 22?C and in loamy sand soil at 22?C but the stimulatory effect was most pronounced in the sand soil at 22?C, where the addition of 6 and 60 ml fermented whey kg-1 soil dw, increased the final degree of n-hexadecane mineralization from 49% in the control soil to 60 and 67% respectively. The increased total mineralization was characterized by an increase in the amount of substrate mineralized by first-order kinetics despite a decrease in the first order rate constant, k1. The highest concentration of fermented whey, 60 ml kg-1, gave rise to substrate competition, diauxie, which resulted in an extended lag phase.
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  • Backlund, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Pre-hospital training and simulation initiative
  • 2014
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The pre-hospital process is a complex one involving aspects such as medical skills as well as care taking, team performance, inter-organizational cooperation and communication. This calls for novel training methods and technology support. Our review of literature (covering the areas of pre-hospital care, training simulator technologies and methods and process modelling) indicates that the different aspects are typically trained in isolation, e.g. medical skills using patient simulators.Objective The pre-hospital training center project addresses the overall complexity of the pre-hospital process by taking all of the aspects into account when designing scenarios and technology support for training the complete prehospital process (covering alarm, on-scene activities, transportation and hand-over). This is indeed a challenging task as we need to develop both training methods and technology support for a very complex training situation.Methods The project will develop a prototype scenario along with technology support to enact it. The training scenario will involve many of the aspects listed above and will be tested in a field experiment with ambulance personnel. Results The expected outcome of the project is a platform for establishing a pre-hospital simulation and training center. The initial technologies, research results and experiences will be used to form a consortium for further work and development. Conclusions We have identified a need for a pre-hospital training center with the unique and ambitious idea of covering the entire pre-hospital process as well as its many interacting aspects. To the best of our knowledge this approach is not at all common and we expect the complexity to be so high that it is a challenging enough research area that can only be addressed if we have a well-designed simulation and training center in place with all the different areas of knowledge represented, i.e. pre-hospital medicine as well as simulation and visualization technology.
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