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Sökning: WFRF:(Kander Astrid) > Umeå universitet

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  • Astrid, Kander, et al. (författare)
  • Foreign trade and declining pollution in Sweden: a decomposition analysis of long-term structural and technological effects
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Energy Policy. - Elsevier. - 1873-6777. ; 34:13, s. 1590-1599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article examines whether there exists any causal relationship between foreign trade and declining pollution in developed countries. In other words, do developed countries outsource their problems to less developed countries rather than solve them? The case study is the Swedish economy and the two environmental indicators employed are energy consumption and CO2 emissions. No causal relationships are found, since Sweden has long been a net exporter of embodied energy and CO2 and continues to be so after 1970, when energy consumption stabilizes and CO, emissions decline. In addition, the ratios of net exported energy and CO2 to total consumption remain stable, which means there were no effects on the energy intensity or CO, intensity either. These results suggest that internal forces, like efficiency improvements, changed consumption patterns and transformation of the energy system, have been crucial for relative environmental improvement in Sweden, while foreign trade has played no role. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kander, Astrid, et al. (författare)
  • Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and growth in the long run-Sweden during 200 years
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: European Review of Economic History. - 1361-4916. ; 8:3, s. 297-335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article examines the evolution of energy use and pollution emissions in Sweden over the past two centuries – a much longer period than has been investigated in the large literature on the environmental Kuznets curve. In this article we show that both energy consumption and pollution emissions in Sweden declined relative to GDP over the last two hundred years. In absolute terms both energy use and pollution increased up until 1970, after which date energy consumption stabilised and pollutant emissions declined, leading to less environmental stress. The energy intensity results are decomposed to determine the relative impact of structural changes in the output structure versus within-sector changes. For the period after 1970 another decomposition for pollution emissions is performed to separate out changes in preferences from energy-related changes. The analyses show that technical change in a broad sense has been crucial for explaining the long-term decline in both energy intensity and pollutant intensity, while the transition to the service economy had negligible effects. Changed preferences affected the decline in emissions after 1970.
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