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Sökning: WFRF:(Key Tim)

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1.
  • Casabonne, Delphine, et al. (författare)
  • A prospective pilot study of antibodies against human papillomaviruses and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma nested in the Oxford component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER. - WILEY-LISS. - 0020-7136. ; 121:8, s. 1862-1868
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a prospective pilot study nested in the EPIC-Oxford cohort, we examined the seroprevalence of antibodies against the L1 antigen of 38 human papilloma virus (HPV) types among 39 cases of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) for whom plasma was collected prior to diagnosis (incident) and 80 controls. Fifteen cases having already developed SCC at blood collection (prevalent) were also tested. There were no statistically significant differences in the seroprevalence of antibodies against any of the HPV types examined between incident cases and controls, nor was there a difference in the seroprevalence of multiple infections. However, consistent with results from published case-control studies, the seroprevalence of many beta-HPV types was higher among prevalent cases than among either incident cases or controls. For example the seroprevalence of antibodies against HPV-8 was 20% (16/80) in controls, 23% (9/39) among incident cases and 40% (6115) among prevalent cases. Among the incident cases only, the seroprevalence was 16% (5/32) among those for whom blood was collected 18+ months prior to diagnosis, but 57% (4/7) among those for whom diagnosis was within 18 months of blood collection, a pattern seen for many of the HPV types. This might suggest that if HPV is involved in the aetiology of SCC, the process occurs close to the time of diagnosis, or that the antibody response observed in people with SCC is a consequence of tumor formation. Further and larger prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of HPV in the aetiology of cutaneous SCC. (C) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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2.
  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms in metabolic genes related to tobacco smoke and the risk of gastric cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 15:12, s. 2427-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolizing enzymes, which often display genetic polymorphisms, are involved in the activation of compounds present in tobacco smoke that may be relevant to gastric carcinogenesis. We report the results of a study looking at the association between risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and polymorphisms in genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, EPHX1, and GSTT1. A nested case-control study was carried out within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, developed in 10 European countries. The study includes 243 newly diagnosed cases of histologically confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma and 946 controls matched by center, age, sex, and date of blood collection. Genotypes were determined in nuclear DNA from WBCs. We found an increased risk of gastric cancer for homozygotes for C (histidine) variant in Y113H of EPHX1 (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.07) compared with subjects with TC/TT. There was also a significant increased risk for smokers carrying at least one variant allele A in Ex7+129C > A (m4) of CYP1A1 and never smokers with null GSTT1 and allele A in the locus -3859G > A of CYP1A2. Most of these genes are involved in the activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, suggesting a potential role of these compounds in gastric carcinogenesis.
3.
  • Al-Delaimy, Wael K, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma concentrations of six carotenoids in nine European countries: report from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - Cambridge Journals. - 1368-9800. ; 7:6, s. 713-722
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In addition to their possible direct biological effects, plasma carotenoids can be used as biochemical markers of fruit and vegetable consumption for identifying diet-disease associations in epidemiological studies. Few studies have compared levels of these carotenoids between countries in Europe. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the variability of plasma carotenoid levels within the cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Plasma levels of six carotenoids--alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin--were measured cross-sectionally in 3043 study subjects from 16 regions in nine European countries. We investigated the relative influence of gender, season, age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking status on plasma levels of the carotenoids. RESULTS: Mean plasma level of the sum of the six carotenoids varied twofold between regions (1.35 micromol l(-1) for men in Malm”, Sweden vs. 2.79 micromol l(-1) for men in Ragusa/Naples, Italy; 1.61 micromol l(-1) for women in The Netherlands vs. 3.52 micromol l(-1) in Ragusa/Naples, Italy). Mean levels of individual carotenoids varied up to fourfold (alpha-carotene: 0.06 micromol l(-1) for men in Murcia, Spain vs. 0.25 micromol l(-1) for vegetarian men living in the UK). In multivariate regression analyses, region was the most important predictor of total plasma carotenoid level (partial R(2)=27.3%), followed by BMI (partial R(2)=5.2%), gender (partial R(2)=2.7%) and smoking status (partial R(2)=2.8%). Females had higher total carotenoid levels than males across Europe. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma levels of carotenoids vary substantially between 16 different regions in Italy, Greece, Spain, France, Germany, the UK, Sweden, Denmark and The Netherlands. Compared with region of residence, the other demographic and lifestyle factors and laboratory measurements have limited predictive value for plasma carotenoid levels in Europe.
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6.
  • Bamia, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary patterns and survival of older Europeans : the EPIC-Elderly Study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition).
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - 1368-9800. ; 10:6, s. 590-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the association of a posteriori dietary patterns with overall survival of older Europeans. Design and setting: This is a multi-centre cohort study. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the association of the prevailing, a posteriori-derived, plant-based dietary pattern with all-cause mortality in a population of subjects who were 60 years or older at recruitment to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort). Analyses controlled for all known potential risk factors. Subjects: in total, 74 607 men and women, 60 years or older at enrolment and without previous coronary heart disease, stroke or cancer, with complete information about dietary intakes and potentially confounding variables, and with known survival status as of December 2003, were included in the analysis. Results: An increase in the score which measures the adherence to the plant-based diet was associated with a lower overall mortality, a one standard deviation increment corresponding to a statistically significant reduction of 14% (95% confidence interval 5-23%). In country-specific analyses the apparent association was stronger in Greece, Spain, Denmark and The Netherlands, and absent in the UK and Germany. Conclusions: Greater adherence to the plant-based diet that was defined a posteriori in this population of European elders is associated with lower all-cause mortality. This dietary score is moderately positively correlated with the Modified Mediterranean Diet Score that has been constructed a priori and was also shown to be beneficial for the Survival of the same EPIC-Elderly cohort.
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8.
  • Boeing, Heiner, et al. (författare)
  • Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract: the prospective EPIC-study
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Springer Netherlands. - 0957-5243. ; 17:7, s. 957-969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiologic studies suggest that a high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract. We studied data from 345,904 subjects of the prospective European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited in seven European countries, who had completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1998. During 2,182,560 person years of observation 352 histologically verified incident squamous cell cancer (SCC) cases (255 males; 97 females) of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus were identified. Linear and restricted cubic spline Cox regressions were fitted on variables of intake of fruits and vegetables and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant inverse association with combined total fruits and vegetables intake (estimated relative risk (RR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.83-1.00 per 80 g/d of consumption), and nearly significant inverse associations in separate analyses with total fruits and total vegetables intake (RR: 0.97 (95% CI: 0.92-1.02) and RR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) per 40 g/d of consumption). Overall, vegetable subgroups were not related to risk with the exception of intake of root vegetables in men. Restricted cubic spline regression did not improve the linear model fits except for total fruits and vegetables and total fruits with a significant decrease in risk at low intake levels (< 120 g/d) for fruits. Dietary recommendations should consider the potential benefit of increasing fruits and vegetables consumption for reducing the risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, particularly at low intake.
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9.
  • Boffetta, Paolo, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 102:8, s. 529-537
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cancer can be prevented by high intake of fruits and vegetables. However, inconsistent results from many studies have not been able to conclusively establish an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to assess relationships between intake of total fruits, total vegetables, and total fruits and vegetables combined and cancer risk during 1992-2000. Detailed information on the dietary habit and lifestyle variables of the cohort was obtained. Cancer incidence and mortality data were ascertained, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. Analyses were also conducted for cancers associated with tobacco and alcohol after stratification for tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: Of the initial 142 605 men and 335 873 women included in the study, 9604 men and 21 000 women were identified with cancer after a median follow-up of 8.7 years. The crude cancer incidence rates were 7.9 per 1000 person-years in men and 7.1 per 1000 person-years in women. Associations between reduced cancer risk and increased intake of total fruits and vegetables combined and total vegetables for the entire cohort were similar (200 g/d increased intake of fruits and vegetables combined, HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96 to 0.99; 100 g/d increased intake of total vegetables, HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99); intake of fruits showed a weaker inverse association (100 g/d increased intake of total fruits, HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.00). The reduced risk of cancer associated with high vegetable intake was restricted to women (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99). Stratification by alcohol intake suggested a stronger reduction in risk in heavy drinkers and was confined to cancers caused by smoking and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: A very small inverse association between intake of total fruits and vegetables and cancer risk was observed in this study. Given the small magnitude of the observed associations, caution should be applied in their interpretation.
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10.
  • Buchner, Frederike L., et al. (författare)
  • Variety in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Risk of Lung Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - Amer Assoc Cancer Research. - 1055-9965. ; 19:9, s. 2278-2286
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We investigated whether a varied consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with lower lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Methods: After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 1,613 of 452,187 participants with complete information were diagnosed with lung cancer. Diet diversity scores (DDS) were used to quantify the variety in fruit and vegetable consumption. Multivariable proportional hazards models were used to assess the associations between DDS and lung cancer risk. All models were adjusted for smoking behavior and the total consumption of fruit and vegetables. Results: With increasing variety in vegetable subgroups, risk of lung cancer decreases hazard ratios (HR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.94 highest versus lowest quartile; P trend = 0.02. This inverse association is restricted to current smokers (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.93 highest versus lowest quartile; P trend = 0.03). In continuous analyses, in current smokers, lower risks were observed for squamous cell carcinomas with more variety in fruit and vegetable products combined (HR/two products, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.95), vegetable subgroups (HR/subgroup, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.97), vegetable products (HR/two products, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.96), and fruit products (HR/two products, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.97). Conclusion: Variety in vegetable consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer risk among current smokers. Risk of squamous cell carcinomas was reduced with increasing variety in fruit and/or vegetable consumption, which was mainly driven by the effect in current smokers. Impact: Independent from quantity of consumption, variety in fruit and vegetable consumption may decrease lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 19(9); 2278-86. (C) 2010 AACR.
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