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Sökning: WFRF:(Key Timothy)

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1.
  • Lotta, Luca A, et al. (författare)
  • Integrative genomic analysis implicates limited peripheral adipose storage capacity in the pathogenesis of human insulin resistance
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036. ; 49:1, s. 17-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insulin resistance is a key mediator of obesity-related cardiometabolic disease, yet the mechanisms underlying this link remain obscure. Using an integrative genomic approach, we identify 53 genomic regions associated with insulin resistance phenotypes (higher fasting insulin levels adjusted for BMI, lower HDL cholesterol levels and higher triglyceride levels) and provide evidence that their link with higher cardiometabolic risk is underpinned by an association with lower adipose mass in peripheral compartments. Using these 53 loci, we show a polygenic contribution to familial partial lipodystrophy type 1, a severe form of insulin resistance, and highlight shared molecular mechanisms in common/mild and rare/severe insulin resistance. Population-level genetic analyses combined with experiments in cellular models implicate CCDC92, DNAH10 and L3MBTL3 as previously unrecognized molecules influencing adipocyte differentiation. Our findings support the notion that limited storage capacity of peripheral adipose tissue is an important etiological component in insulin-resistant cardiometabolic disease and highlight genes and mechanisms underpinning this link.
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2.
  • Scott, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • A genomic approach to therapeutic target validation identifies a glucose-lowering GLP1R variant protective for coronary heart disease
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine. - American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 1946-6234. ; 8:341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Regulatory authorities have indicated that new drugs to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D) should not be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Human genetics may be able to guide development of antidiabetic therapies by predicting cardiovascular and other health endpoints. We therefore investigated the association of variants in six genes that encode drug targets for obesity or T2D with a range of metabolic traits in up to 11, 806 individuals by targeted exome sequencing and follow-up in 39, 979 individuals by targeted genotyping, with additional in silico follow-up in consortia. We used these data to first compare associations of variants in genes encoding drug targets with the effects of pharmacological manipulation of those targets in clinical trials. We then tested the association of those variants with disease outcomes, including coronary heart disease, to predict cardiovascular safety of these agents. A low-frequency missense variant (Ala316Thr; rs10305492) in the gene encoding glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R), the target of GLP1R agonists, was associated with lower fasting glucose and T2D risk, consistent with GLP1R agonist therapies. The minor allele was also associated with protection against heart disease, thus providing evidence that GLP1R agonists are not likely to be associated with an unacceptable increase in cardiovascular risk. Our results provide an encouraging signal that these agents may be associated with benefit, a question currently being addressed in randomized controlled trials. Genetic variants associated with metabolic traits and multiple disease outcomes can be used to validate therapeutic targets at an early stage in the drug development process.
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3.
  • Abbas, Sascha, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nutrition and Cancer. - Taylor & Francis. - 0163-5581. ; 65:2, s. 178-187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a mean follow-up of 8.8 yr, 7760 incident invasive breast cancer cases were identified among 319,985 women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of vitamin D intake, HR and 95% CI were 1.07 (0.87-1.32) and 1.02 (0.90-1.16) for pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. The corresponding HR and 95% CIs for calcium intake were 0.98 (0.80-1.19) and 0.90 (0.79-1.02), respectively. For calcium intake in postmenopausal women, the test for trend was borderline statistically significant (P(trend) = 0.05). There was no significant interaction between vitamin D and calcium intake and cancer risk (P(interaction) = 0.57 and 0.22 in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively). In this large prospective cohort, we found no evidence for an association between dietary vitamin D or calcium intake and breast cancer risk.
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4.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Adult weight change and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - Elsevier. - 1879-0852. ; 49:16, s. 3526-3536
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: Weight change during adult life may reflect metabolic changes and influence colorectal cancer (CRC) development, but such role is not well established. We aimed to explore the association between adult weight change (from age 20 to 50) and CRC risk. In particular, we investigated differences according to colon and rectal cancer, sex and measures of attained adiposity. Methods: We included 201,696 participants from six participating countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2010). During a mean follow-up of 11.2 years 2384 (1194 in men and 1190 in women) incident CRC cases occurred. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for body mass index at age 20 and lifestyle factors at study recruitment were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After multivariable adjustment, each kg of weight gained annually from age 20 to 50 was associated with a 60% higher risk of colon cancer (95% CI 1.20-2.09), but not rectal cancer (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.79-1.62, P-interaction = 0.04). The higher risk of colon cancer was restricted to people with high attained waist circumference at age 50 (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.14-2.91, P-interaction = 0.02). Results were not different in men and women (P-interaction = 0.81). Conclusion(s): Adult weight gain, as reflected by attained abdominal obesity at age 50, increases colon cancer risk in both men and women. These data underline the importance of weight management and metabolic health maintenance in early adult life years for colon cancer prevention. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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5.
  • Allen, Naomi E, et al. (författare)
  • Endogenous sex hormones and endometrial cancer risk in women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Endocrine-Related Cancer. - 1351-0088. ; 15:2, s. 485-497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiological data show that reproductive and hormonal factors are involved in the etiology of endometrial cancer, but there is little data on the association with endogenous sex hormone levels. We analyzed the association between prediagnostic serum concentrations of sex steroids and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition using a nested case-control design of 247 incident endometrial cancer cases and 481 controls, matched on center, menopausal status, age, variables relating to blood collection, and, for premenopausal women, phase of menstrual cycle. Using conditional regression analysis, endometrial cancer risk among postmenopausal women was positively associated with increasing levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estrone, total estradiol, and free estradiol. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest versus lowest tertile were 2.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-4.72; P=0.002 for a continuous linear trend) for estrone, 2.07 (95% CI 1.20-3.60; P=0.001) for estradiol, and 1.66 (95% CI 0.98-2.82; P=0.001) for free estradiol. For total and free testosterone, ORs for the highest versus lowest tertile were 1.44 (95% CI 0.88-2.36; P=0.05) and 2.05 (95% CI 1.23-3.42; P=0.005) respectively. Androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were not associated with risk. Sex hormone-binding globulin was significantly inversely associated with risk (OR for the highest versus lowest tertile was 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.95; P=0.004). In premenopausal women, serum sex hormone concentrations were not clearly associated with endometrial cancer risk, but numbers were too small to draw firm conclusions. In conclusion, relatively high blood concentrations of estrogens and free testosterone are associated with an increased endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
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6.
  • Allen, Naomi E, et al. (författare)
  • Macronutrient intake and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 132:3, s. 635-644
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies have suggested that dietary factors may be important in the development of bladder cancer. We examined macronutrient intake in relation to risk of urothelial cell carcinoma among 469,339 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by sex, age at recruitment and centre and further adjusted for smoking status and duration, body mass index and total energy intake. After an average of 11.3 years of follow-up, 1,416 new cases of urothelial cell carcinoma were identified. After allowing for measurement error, a 3% increase in the consumption of energy intake from animal protein was associated with a 15% higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 330%; ptrend = 0.01) and a 2% increase in energy from plant protein intake was associated with a 23% lower risk (95% CI: 367%, ptrend = 0.006). Dietary intake of fat, carbohydrate, fibre or calcium was not associated with risk. These findings suggest that animal and/or plant protein may affect the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma, and examination of these associations in other studies is needed.
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8.
  • Allen, Naomi E., et al. (författare)
  • Selenium and Prostate Cancer Analysis of Individual Participant Data From Fifteen Prospective Studies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874. ; 108:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Some observational studies suggest that a higher selenium status is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer but have been generally too small to provide precise estimates of associations, particularly by disease stage and grade. Methods: Collaborating investigators from 15 prospective studies provided individual-participant records (from predominantly men of white European ancestry) on blood or toenail selenium concentrations and prostate cancer risk. Odds ratios of prostate cancer by selenium concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Blood selenium was not associated with the risk of total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio [OR] per 80 percentile increase = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83 to 1.23, based on 4527 case patients and 6021 control subjects). However, there was heterogeneity by disease aggressiveness (ie, advanced stage and/or prostate cancer death, P-heterogeneity = .01), with high blood selenium associated with a lower risk of aggressive disease (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.21 to 0.87) but not with nonaggressive disease. Nail selenium was inversely associated with total prostate cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.40, P-trend <.001, based on 1970 case patients and 2086 control subjects), including both nonaggressive (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.50) and aggressive disease (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.31, P-heterogeneity =.08). Conclusions: Nail, but not blood, selenium concentration is inversely associated with risk of total prostate cancer, possibly because nails are a more reliable marker of long-term selenium exposure. Both blood and nail selenium concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of aggressive disease, which warrants further investigation.
9.
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10.
  • Bamia, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer risk: results from a European cohort
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - Springer. - 1573-7284. ; 28:4, s. 317-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors investigated the association of adherence to Mediterranean diet with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was expressed through two 10-unit scales, the Modified Mediterranean diet score (MMDS) and the Centre-Specific MMDS (CSMMDS). Both scales share the same dietary components but differ in the cut-off values that were used for these components in the construction of the scales. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the associations of these scales with CRC incidence were estimated. After 5,296,617 person-years of follow-up, 4,355 incident CRC cases were identified. A decreased risk of CRC, of 8 and 11 % was estimated when comparing the highest (scores 6-9) with the lowest (scores 0-3) adherence to CSMMDS and MMDS respectively. For MMDS the HR was 0.89 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.99). A 2-unit increment in either Mediterranean scale was associated with a borderline statistically significant 3 to 4 % reduction in CRC risk (HR for MMDS: 0.96; 95 % CI: 0.92, 1.00). These associations were somewhat more evident, among women, were mainly manifested for colon cancer risk and their magnitude was not altered when alcohol was excluded from MMDS. These findings suggest that following a Mediterranean diet may have a modest beneficial effect on CRC risk.
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