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Sökning: WFRF:(Khan Sofia) > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Traylor, Matthew, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic risk factors for ischaemic stroke and its subtypes (the METASTROKE Collaboration): a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 11:11, s. 951-962
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Various genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been done in ischaemic stroke, identifying a few loci associated with the disease, but sample sizes have been 3500 cases or less. We established the METASTROKE collaboration with the aim of validating associations from previous GWAS and identifying novel genetic associations through meta-analysis of GWAS datasets for ischaemic stroke and its subtypes. Methods We meta-analysed data from 15 ischaemic stroke cohorts with a total of 12 389 individuals with ischaemic stroke and 62 004 controls, all of European ancestry. For the associations reaching genome-wide significance in METASTROKE, we did a further analysis, conditioning on the lead single nudeotide polymorphism in every associated region. Replication of novel suggestive signals was done in 13 347 cases and 29 083 controls. Findings We verified previous associations for cardioembolic stroke near PITX2 (p=2.8x10(-16)) and ZFHX3 (p=2.28x10(-8)), and for large-vessel stroke at a 9p21 locus (p=3.32x10(-5)) and HDAC9 (p=2.03x10(-12)). Additionally, we verified that all associations were subtype specific. Conditional analysis in the three regions for which the associations reached genome-wide significance (PITX2, ZFHX3, and HDAC9) indicated that all the signal in each region could be attributed to one risk haplotype. We also identified 12 potentially novel loci at p<5x10(-6). However, we were unable to replicate any of these novel associations in the replication cohort. Interpretation Our results show that, although genetic variants can be detected in patients with ischaemic stroke when compared with controls, all associations we were able to confirm are specific to a stroke subtype. This finding has two implications. First, to maximise success of genetic studies in ischaemic stroke, detailed stroke subtyping is required. Second, different genetic pathophysiological mechanisms seem to be associated with different stroke subtypes.
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2.
  • Khan, Omar M., 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I) deficiency hyperactivates macrophages and induces erosive arthritis in mice.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical investigation. - 1558-8238. ; 121:2, s. 628-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RHO family proteins are important for the function of inflammatory cells. They are modified with a 20-carbon geranylgeranyl lipid in a process catalyzed by protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I). Geranylgeranylation is viewed as essential for the membrane targeting and activity of RHO proteins. Consequently, inhibiting GGTase-I to interfere with RHO protein activity has been proposed as a strategy to treat inflammatory disorders. However, here we show that mice lacking GGTase-I in macrophages develop severe joint inflammation resembling erosive rheumatoid arthritis. The disease was initiated by the GGTase-I-deficient macrophages and was transplantable and reversible in bone marrow transplantation experiments. The cells accumulated high levels of active GTP-bound RAC1, CDC42, and RHOA, and RAC1 remained associated with the plasma membrane. Moreover, GGTase-I deficiency activated p38 and NF-κB and increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The results challenge the view that geranylgeranylation is essential for the activity and localization of RHO family proteins and suggest that reduced geranylgeranylation in macrophages can initiate erosive arthritis.
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3.
  • Khan, Samiullah, et al. (författare)
  • Aglycone specificity of Thermotoga neapolitana beta-glucosidase 1A modified by mutagenesis, leading to increased catalytic efficiency in quercetin-3-glucoside hydrolysis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: BMC Biochemistry. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2091. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The thermostable beta-glucosidase (TnBgl1A) from Thermotoga neapolitana is a promising biocatalyst for hydrolysis of glucosylated flavonoids and can be coupled to extraction methods using pressurized hot water. Hydrolysis has however been shown to be dependent on the position of the glucosylation on the flavonoid, and e. g. quercetin-3-glucoside (Q3) was hydrolysed slowly. A set of mutants of TnBgl1A were thus created to analyse the influence on the kinetic parameters using the model substrate para-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (pNPGlc), and screened for hydrolysis of Q3. Results: Structural analysis pinpointed an area in the active site pocket with non-conserved residues between specificity groups in glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1). Three residues in this area located on beta-strand 5 (F219, N221, and G222) close to sugar binding sub-site +2 were selected for mutagenesis and amplified in a protocol that introduced a few spontaneous mutations. Eight mutants (four triple: F219L/P165L/M278I, N221S/P165L/M278I, G222Q/P165L/M278I, G222Q/V203M/K214R, two double: F219L/K214R, N221S/P342L and two single: G222M and N221S) were produced in E. coli, and purified to apparent homogeneity. Thermostability, measured as T-m by differential scanning calorimetry (101.9 degrees C for wt), was kept in the mutated variants and significant decrease (Delta T of 5 -10 degrees C) was only observed for the triple mutants. The exchanged residue(s) in the respective mutant resulted in variations in K-M and turnover. The K-M-value was only changed in variants mutated at position 221 (N221S) and was in all cases monitored as a 2-3 x increase for pNPGlc, while the K-M decreased a corresponding extent for Q3. Turnover was only significantly changed using pNPGlc, and was decreased 2-3 x in variants mutated at position 222, while the single, double and triple mutated variants carrying a mutation at position 221 (N221S) increased turnover up to 3.5 x compared to the wild type. Modelling showed that the mutation at position 221, may alter the position of N291 resulting in increased hydrogen bonding of Q3 (at a position corresponding to the +1 subsite) which may explain the decrease in K-M for this substrate. Conclusion: These results show that residues at the +2 subsite are interesting targets for mutagenesis and mutations at these positions can directly or indirectly affect both K-M and turnover. An affinity change, leading to a decreased K-M, can be explained by an altered position of N291, while the changes in turnover are more difficult to explain and may be the result of smaller conformational changes in the active site.
4.
  • Khan, Sami, et al. (författare)
  • Immobilization of thermostable beta-glucosidase variants on acrylic supports for biocatalytic processes in hot water
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic. - Elsevier. - 1873-3158. ; 80, s. 28-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two variants of the thermostable beta-glucosidase TnBgl1A (wt and N221S/P342L) from Thermotoga neapolitana were immobilized on acrylic supports (Eupergit (R) C, Eupergit (R) C250L, and cryogel) and evaluated at conditions close to the boiling point of water. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed the supports to be stable <250 degrees C. Both wt and N221S/P342L were covalently bound to oxirane-groups respectively via glutaraldehyde spacers, and for coupling reactions 26 Lys and 20 Ser/Thr were surface-located. Immobilized enzymes were active on all supports in the temperature range 80-95 degrees C, but the observed specific activity was low (<= 19 U mg(-1)) using the cryogel. More than 91% of the initial activity was maintained after ten times recycling, and the same was recovered after 3 months storage at 4 degrees C for Eupergit (R) supports by simply incubating the preparation with bovine serum albumin. No storage loss was detectable on cryogels. The glutaraldehyde spacer improved activity on cryogels, but not on Eupergie supports. Immobilization on Eupergit (R) C250L yielded the highest observed specific activity (254 U mg(-1) for N221S/P342L) in a procedure including blocking of free oxirane-groups by BSA. This biocatalyst was used for on-line hydrolysis of quercetin-glucosides in a yellow onion extract at 80 degrees C, proving the immobilized biocatalyst to be promising in on-line systems for extraction and hydrolysis using hot pressurized water. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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5.
  • Khan, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Performance of protein stability predictors.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1059-7794. ; 31:6, s. 675-684
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stability is a fundamental property affecting function, activity, and regulation of biomolecules. Stability changes are often found for mutated proteins involved in diseases. Stability predictors computationally predict protein-stability changes caused by mutations. We performed a systematic analysis of 11 online stability predictors' performances. These predictors are CUPSAT, Dmutant, FoldX, I-Mutant2.0, two versions of I-Mutant3.0 (sequence and structure versions), MultiMutate, MUpro, SCide, Scpred, and SRide. As input, 1,784 single mutations found in 80 proteins were used, and these mutations did not include those used for training. The programs' performances were also assessed according to where the mutations were found in the proteins, that is, in secondary structures and on the surface or in the core of a protein, and according to protein structure type. The extents to which the mutations altered the occupied volumes at the residue sites and the charge interactions were also characterized. The predictions of all programs were in line with the experimental data. I-Mutant3.0 (utilizing structural information), Dmutant, and FoldX were the most reliable predictors. The stability-center predictors performed with similar accuracy. However, at best, the predictions were only moderately accurate ( approximately 60%) and significantly better tools would be needed for routine analysis of mutation effects.
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6.
  • Lindahl, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • An on-line method for pressurized hot water extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of quercetin glucosides from onions.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Analytica Chimica Acta. - Elsevier. - 1873-4324. ; 785, s. 50-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel environmentally sound continuous-flow hot water extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis method for determination of quercetin in onion raw materials was successfully constructed using a stepwise optimization approach. In the first step, enzymatic hydrolysis of quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside to quercetin was optimized using a three level central composite design considering temperature (75-95°C), pH (3-6) and volume concentration of ethanol (5-15%). The enzyme used was a thermostable β-glucosidase variant (termed TnBgl1A_N221S/P342L) covalently immobilized on either of two acrylic support-materials (Eupergit(®) C 250L or monolithic cryogel). Optimal reaction conditions were irrespective of support 84°C, 5% ethanol and pH 5.5, and at these conditions, no significant loss of enzyme activity was observed during 72h of use. In a second step, hot water extractions from chopped yellow onions, run at the optimal temperature for hydrolysis, were optimized in a two level design with respect to pH (2.6 and 5.5), ethanol concentration (0 and 5%) and flow rate (1 and 3mLmin(-1)) Obtained results showed that the total quercetin extraction yield was 1.7 times higher using a flow rate of 3mLmin(-1) (extraction time 90min), compared to a flow rate of 1mLmin(-1) (extraction time 240min). Presence of 5% ethanol was favorable for the extraction yield, while a further decrease in pH was not, not even for the extraction step alone. Finally, the complete continuous flow method (84°C, 5% ethanol, pH 5.5, 3mLmin(-1)) was used to extract quercetin from yellow, red and shallot onions and resulted in higher or similar yield (e.g. 8.4±0.7μmolg(-1) fresh weight yellow onion) compared to a conventional batch extraction method using methanol as extraction solvent.
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7.
  • Lindahl, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring the possibility of using a thermostable mutant of beta-glucosidase for rapid hydrolysis of quercetin glucosides in hot water
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Green Chemistry. - Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1463-9270. ; 12:1, s. 159-168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The antioxidant quercetin was extracted from yellow onion waste and converted to its aglycone form by a combination of subcritical water extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrolytic step was catalysed by a double residue (N221S, P342L) mutant of the thermostable beta-glucosidase (TnBgl1A), isolated from the thermophile Thermotoga neapolitana and cloned and produced in E. coli. The activity of wt TnBgl1A was shown to be dependent on the position of the glucosylation on the quercetin backbone, favouring hydrolysis of quercetin-4'-glucoside over quercetin-3-glucoside. The mutated variant of the enzyme harboured a mutation in the +2 sub-site (N221S) and showed increased catalytic efficiency in quercetin-3-glucoside hydrolysis and also to a certain extent hydrolysis of quercetin-4'-glucoside. The mutated enzyme was used directly in yellow onion extracts, prepared by subcritical water extraction, resulting in complete hydrolysis of the glucosylated flavonoids quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside, quercetin-4'-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3,4'-diglucoside. To complete hydrolysis within five minutes, 3 mg of TnBgl1A_N221S was used per gramme of onion (dry weight). A life cycle assessment was done to compare the environmental impact of the new method with a conventional solid-liquid extraction-and-hydrolysis method utilising aqueous methanol and hydrochloric acid. Comparison of the methods showed that the new method is preferable regarding primary energy consumption and global warming potential. Another advantage of this method is that handling of toxic chemicals (methanol and HCl) is avoided. This shows that combined subcritical water extraction/enzyme hydrolysis is both a fast and sustainable method to obtain quercetin from onion waste.
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8.
  • Lindahl, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring the possibility of using a thermostable mutant of β-glucosidase for rapid hydrolysis of quercetin glucosides in hot water
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Green Chemistry. - The Royal Society of Chemistry. - 1463-9262 .- 1463-9270. ; 12:1, s. 159-168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The antioxidant quercetin was extracted from yellow onion waste and converted to its aglycone form by a combination of subcritical water extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis. The hydrolytic step was catalysed by a double residue (N221S, P342L) mutant of the thermostable beta-glucosidase (TnBgl1A), isolated from the thermophile Thermotoga neapolitana and cloned and produced in E. coli. The activity of wt TnBgl1A was shown to be dependent on the position of the glucosylation on the quercetin backbone, favouring hydrolysis of quercetin-4'-glucoside over quercetin-3-glucoside. The mutated variant of the enzyme harboured a mutation in the +2 sub-site (N221S) and showed increased catalytic efficiency in quercetin-3-glucoside hydrolysis and also to a certain extent hydrolysis of quercetin-4'-glucoside. The mutated enzyme was used directly in yellow onion extracts, prepared by subcritical water extraction, resulting in complete hydrolysis of the glucosylated flavonoids quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside, quercetin-4'-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3,4'-diglucoside. To complete hydrolysis within five minutes, 3 mg of TnBgl1A_N221S was used per gramme of onion (dry weight). A life cycle assessment was done to compare the environmental impact of the new method with a conventional solid-liquid extraction-and-hydrolysis method utilising aqueous methanol and hydrochloric acid. Comparison of the methods showed that the new method is preferable regarding primary energy consumption and global warming potential. Another advantage of this method is that handling of toxic chemicals (methanol and HCl) is avoided. This shows that combined subcritical water extraction/enzyme hydrolysis is both a fast and sustainable method to obtain quercetin from onion waste.</p>
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9.
10.
  • Tuohimaa, Pentti, et al. (författare)
  • Gene Expression Profiles in Human and Mouse Primary Cells Provide New Insights into the Differential Actions of Vitamin D-3 Metabolites
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-3 (1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D-3) had earlier been regarded as the only active hormone. The newly identified actions of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3) and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 (24R,25(OH)(2)D-3) broadened the vitamin D-3 endocrine system, however, the current data are fragmented and a systematic understanding is lacking. Here we performed the first systematic study of global gene expression to clarify their similarities and differences. Three metabolites at physiologically comparable levels were utilized to treat human and mouse fibroblasts prior to DNA microarray analyses. Human primary prostate stromal P29SN cells (hP29SN), which convert 25(OH)D-3 into 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D-3 by 1 alpha-hydroxylase (encoded by the gene CYP27B1), displayed regulation of 164, 171, and 175 genes by treatment with 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D-3, 25(OH)D-3, and 24R,25(OH)(2)D-3, respectively. Mouse primary Cyp27b1 knockout fibroblasts (mCyp27b1(-/-)), which lack 1 alpha-hydroxylation, displayed regulation of 619, 469, and 66 genes using the same respective treatments. The number of shared genes regulated by two metabolites is much lower in hP29SN than in mCyp27b1(-/-). By using DAVID Functional Annotation Bioinformatics Microarray Analysis tools and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, we identified the agonistic regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone remodeling between 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)D-3 and 25(OH)D-3 and unique non-classical actions of each metabolite in physiological and pathological processes, including cell cycle, keratinocyte differentiation, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis signaling, gene transcription, immunomodulation, epigenetics, cell differentiation, and membrane protein expression. In conclusion, there are three distinct vitamin D-3 hormones with clearly different biological activities. This study presents a new conceptual insight into the vitamin D-3 endocrine system, which may guide the strategic use of vitamin D-3 in disease prevention and treatment.
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