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Sökning: WFRF:(Kim Hyun Jung) > (2006-2009)

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  • Kim, Chan-Hee, et al. (författare)
  • A three-step proteolytic cascade mediates the activation of the peptidoglycan-induced toll pathway in an insect
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 283:12, s. 7599-7607
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The recognition of lysine-type peptidoglycans (PG) by the PG recognition complex has been suggested to cause activation of the serine protease cascade leading to the processing of Spätzle and subsequent activation of the Toll signaling pathway. So far, two serine proteases involved in the lysine-type PG Toll signaling pathway have been identified. One is a modular serine protease functioning as an initial enzyme to be recruited into the lysine-type PG recognition complex. The other is the Drosophila Spätzle processing enzyme (SPE), a terminal enzyme that converts Spätzle pro-protein to its processed form capable of binding to the Toll receptor. However, it remains unclear how the initial PG recognition signal is transferred to Spätzle resulting in Toll pathway activation. Also, the biochemical characteristics and mechanism of action of a serine protease linking the modular serine protease and SPE have not been investigated. Here, we purified and cloned a novel upstream serine protease of SPE that we named SAE, SPE-activating enzyme, from the hemolymph of a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor larvae. This enzyme was activated by Tenebrio modular serine protease and in turn activated the Tenebrio SPE. The biochemical ordered functions of these three serine proteases were determined in vitro, suggesting that the activation of a three-step proteolytic cascade is necessary and sufficient for lysine-type PG recognition signaling. The processed Spätzle by this cascade induced antibacterial activity in vivo. These results demonstrate that the three-step proteolytic cascade linking the PG recognition complex and Spätzle processing is essential for the PG-dependent Toll signaling pathway.
  • Ju, Jin Sung, et al. (författare)
  • A novel 40-kDa protein containing six repeats of an epidermal growth factor-like domain functions as a pattern recognition protein for lipopolysaccharide.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Immunology. - 0022-1767 .- 1550-6606. ; 177:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Determination of structures and functions of pattern recognition proteins are important for understanding pathogen recognition mechanisms in host defense and for elucidating the activation mechanism of innate immune reactions. In this study, a novel 40-kDa protein, named LPS recognition protein (LRP), was purified to homogeneity from the cell-free plasma of larvae of the large beetle, Holotrichia diomphalia. LRP exhibited agglutinating activities on Escherichia coli, but not on Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. This E. coli-agglutinating activity was preferentially inhibited by the rough-type LPS with a complete core oligosaccharide. LRP consists of 317 aa residues and six repeats of an epidermal growth factor-like domain. Recombinant LRP expressed in a baculovirus system also showed E. coli agglutination activity in vitro and was able to neutralize LPS by inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6 production in mouse bone marrow mast cells. Furthermore, E. coli coated with the purified LRP were more rapidly cleared in the Holotrichia larvae than only E. coli, indicating that this protein participates in the clearance of E. coli in vivo. The three amino-terminal epidermal growth factor-like domains of LRP, but not the three carboxyl epidermal growth factor-like domains, are involved in the LPS-binding activity. Taken together, this LRP functions as a pattern recognition protein for LPS and plays a role as an innate immune protein.
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