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1.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of pi(0) Suppression in Au plus Au Collisions from root s(NN)=39 to 200 GeV
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - American Physical Society. - 0031-9007. ; 109:15, s. 152301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutral-pion pi(0) spectra were measured at midrapidity (vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.35) in Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 39 and 62.4 GeV and compared with earlier measurements at 200 GeV in a transverse-momentum range of 1 < p(T) < 10 GeV/c. The high-p(T) tail is well described by a power law in all cases, and the powers decrease significantly with decreasing center-of-mass energy. The change of powers is very similar to that observed in the corresponding spectra for p + p collisions. The nuclear modification factors (RAA) show significant suppression, with a distinct energy, centrality, and p(T) dependence. Above p(T) = 7 GeV/c, R-AA is similar for root sNN = 62.4 and 200 GeV at all centralities. Perturbative-quantum-chromodynamics calculations that describe R-AA well at 200 GeV fail to describe the 39 GeV data, raising the possibility that, for the same p(T) region, the relative importance of initial-state effects and soft processes increases at lower energies. The p(T) range where pi(0) spectra in central Au + Au collisions have the same power as in p + p collisions is approximate to 5 and 7 GeV/c for root sNN = 200 and 62.4 GeV, respectively. For the root sNN = 39 GeV data, it is not clear whether such a region is reached, and the x(T) dependence of the x(T)-scaling power-law exponent is very different from that observed in the root sNN = 62 and 200 GeV data, providing further evidence that initial-state effects and soft processes mask the in-medium suppression of hardscattered partons to higher p(T) as the collision energy decreases.
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2.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Heavy-quark production and elliptic flow in Au plus Au collisions at root(NN)-N-S=62.4 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C. - Amer Physical Soc. - 0556-2813. ; 91:4, s. 044907
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present measurements of electrons and positrons from the semileptonic decays of heavy-flavor hadrons at midrapidity (vertical bar gamma vertical bar < 0.35) in Au + Au collisions at root(NN)-N-S = 62.4 GeV. The data were collected in 2010 by the PHENIX experiment that included the new hadron-blind detector. The invariant yield of electrons from heavy-flavor decays is measured as a function of transverse momentum in the range 1 < p(T)(e) < 5 GeV/c. The invariant yield per binary collision is slightly enhanced above the p + p reference in Au + Au 0%-20%, 20%-40%, and 40%-60% centralities at a comparable level. At this low beam energy this may be a result of the interplay between initial-state Cronin effects, final-state flow, and energy loss in medium. The v(2) of electrons from heavy-flavor decays is nonzero when averaged between 1.3 < p(T)(e) < 2.5 GeV/c for 0%-40% centrality collisions at root(NN)-N-S = 62.4 GeV. For 20%-40% centrality collisions, the v(2) at root(NN)-N-S = 62.4 GeV is smaller than that for heavy-flavor decays at root(NN)-N-S = 200 GeV. The v2 of the electrons from heavy-flavor decay at the lower beam energy is also smaller than v(2) for pions. Both results indicate that the heavy quarks interact with the medium formed in these collisions, but they may not be at the same level of thermalization with the medium as observed at root(NN)-N-S = 200 GeV.
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3.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of gamma(1S+2S+3S) production in p plus p and Au plus Au collisions at root sNN=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C. - Amer Physical Soc. - 0556-2813. ; 91:2, s. 024913
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements of bottomonium production in heavy-ion and p + p collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are presented. The inclusive yield of the three states, (1S + 2S + 3S), was measured in the PHENIX experiment via electron-positron decay pairs at midrapidity for Au + Au and p + p collisions at root sNN = 200 GeV. The (1S + 2S + 3S) -> e(+)e(-) differential cross section at midrapidity was found to be B(ee)d sigma/dy = 108 +/- 38 (stat) +/- 15 (syst) +/- 11 (luminosity) pb in p + p collisions. The nuclear modification factor in the 30% most central Au + Au collisions indicates a suppression of the total. state yield relative to the extrapolation from p + p collision data. The suppression is consistent with measurements made by STAR at RHIC and at higher energies by the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider.
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4.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Medium Modification of Jet Fragmentation in Au plus Au Collisions at root S-NN=200 GeV Measured in Direct Photon-Hadron Correlations
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - American Physical Society. - 0031-9007. ; 111:3, s. 032301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The jet fragmentation function is measured with direct photon-hadron correlations in p + p and Au + Au collisions at root S-NN = 200 GeV. The P-T of the photon is an excellent approximation to the initial P-T of the jet and the ratio Z(T) = P-T(h)/P-T(gamma) is used as a proxy for the jet fragmentation function. A statistical subtraction is used to extract the direct photon-hadron yields in Au + Au collisions while a photon isolation cut is applied in p + p. I-AA, the ratio of hadron yield opposite the photon in Au + Au to that in p + p, indicates modification of the jet fragmentation function. Suppression, most likely due to energy loss in the medium, is seen at high Z(T). The associated hadron yield at low Z(T) is enhanced at large angles. Such a trend is expected from redistribution of the lost energy into increased production of low-momentum particles.
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5.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Direct photon production in d+Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C. - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 87:5, s. 054907
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Direct photons have been measured in root s(NN) = 200 GeV d + Au collisions at midrapidity. A wide p(T) range is covered by measurements of nearly real virtual photons (1 < p(T) < 6 GeV/c) and real photons (5 < p(T) < 16 GeV/c). The invariant yield of the direct photons in d + Au collisions over the scaled p + p cross section is consistent with unity. Theoretical calculations assuming standard cold-nuclear-matter effects describe the data well for the entire p(T) range. This indicates that the large enhancement of direct photons observed in Au + Au collisions for 1.0 < p(T) < 2.5 GeV/c is attributable to a source other than the initial-state nuclear effects.
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6.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • gamma (1S+2S+3S) production in d plus Au and p plus p collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV and cold-nuclear-matter effects
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C. - American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 87:4, s. 044909
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The three gamma states, gamma (1S + 2S + 3S), are measured in d + Au and p + p collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV and rapidities 1.2 < vertical bar y vertical bar < 2.2 by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Cross sections for the inclusive gamma (1S + 2S + 3S) production are obtained. The inclusive yields per binary collision for d + Au collisions relative to those in p + p collisions (R-dAu) are found to be 0.62 +/- 0.26 (stat) +/- 0.13 (syst) in the gold-going direction and 0.91 +/- 0.33 (stat) +/- 0.16 (syst) in the deuteron-going direction. The measured results are compared to a nuclear-shadowing model, EPS09 [Eskola et al., J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2009) 065], combined with a final-state breakup cross section, sigma(br), and compared to lower energy p + A results. We also compare the results to the PHENIX J/psi results [Adare et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 142301 (2011)]. The rapidity dependence of the observed gamma suppression is consistent with lower energy p + A measurements. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.87.044909
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7.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Nuclear modification factors of phi mesons in d plus Au, Cu plus Cu, and Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=200 GeV
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C. - Amer Physical Soc. - 0556-2813. ; 83:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has performed systematic measurements of phi meson production in the K+K- decay channel at midrapidity in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu, and Au + Au collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. Results are presented on the phi invariant yield and the nuclear modification factor R-AA for Au + Au and Cu + Cu, and R-dA for d + Au collisions, studied as a function of transverse momentum (1 < p(T) < 7 GeV/c) and centrality. In central and midcentral Au + Au collisions, the R-AA of phi exhibits a suppression relative to expectations from binary scaled p + p results. The amount of suppression is smaller than that of the pi(0) and the. in the intermediate p(T) range (2-5 GeV/c), whereas, at higher p(T), the phi, pi(0), and. show similar suppression. The baryon (proton and antiproton) excess observed in central Au + Au collisions at intermediate p(T) is not observed for the phi meson despite the similar masses of the proton and the phi. This suggests that the excess is linked to the number of valence quarks in the hadron rather than its mass. The difference gradually disappears with decreasing centrality, and, for peripheral collisions, the R-AA values for both particle species are consistent with binary scaling. Cu + Cu collisions show the same yield and suppression as Au + Au collisions for the same number of N-part. The R-dA of phi shows no evidence for cold nuclear effects within uncertainties.
8.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Charged-pion cross sections and double-helicity asymmetries in polarized p plus p collisions at root s=200 GeV
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - Amer Physical Soc. - 1550-7998. ; 91:3, s. 032001
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present midrapidity charged-pion invariant cross sections, the ratio of the pi(-) to pi(+) cross sections and the charge-separated double-spin asymmetries in polarized p + p collisions at root s = p + 200 GeV. While the cross section measurements are consistent within the errors of next-to-leading-order (NLO) perturbative quantum chromodynamics predictions (pQCD), the same calculations overestimate the ratio of the charged-pion cross sections. This discrepancy arises from the cancellation of the substantial systematic errors associated with the NLO-pQCD predictions in the ratio and highlights the constraints these data will place on flavor-dependent pion fragmentation functions. The charge-separated pion asymmetries presented here sample an x range of similar to 0.03-0.16 and provide unique information on the sign of the gluon-helicity distribution.
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9.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Cold-Nuclear-Matter Effects on Heavy-Quark Production at Forward and Backward Rapidity in d + Au Collisions at root s(NN) = GeV
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - American Physical Society. - 0031-9007. ; 112:25, s. 252301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX experiment has measured open heavy-flavor production via semileptonic decay over the transverse momentum range 1 < p(T) < 6 GeV/c at forward and backward rapidity (1.4 < vertical bar y vertical bar < 2.0) in d + Au and p + p collisions at root s(NN) = 200 GeV. In central d + Au collisions, relative to the yield in p + p collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, a suppression is observed at forward rapidity (in the d-going direction) and an enhancement at backward rapidity (in the Au-going direction). Predictions using nuclear-modified-parton-distribution functions, even with additional nuclear-p(T) broadening, cannot simultaneously reproduce the data at both rapidity ranges, which implies that these models are incomplete and suggests the possible importance of final-state interactions in the asymmetric d + Au collision system. These results can be used to probe cold-nuclear-matter effects, which may significantly affect heavy-quark production, in addition to helping constrain the magnitude of charmonia-breakup effects in nuclear matter.
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10.
  • Adare, A., et al. (författare)
  • Cross Section and Parity-Violating Spin Asymmetries of W-+/- Boson Production in Polarized p plus p Collisions at root s=500 Gev
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - Amer Physical Soc. - 0031-9007. ; 106:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large parity-violating longitudinal single-spin asymmetries A(L)(e+) = 0.86(-0.14)(+0.30) and Ae(L)(e-) = 0.88(-0.71)(+0.12) are observed for inclusive high transverse momentum electrons and positrons in polarized p + p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of root s = 500 GeV with the PHENIX detector at RHIC. These e(+/-) come mainly from the decay of W-+/- and Z(0) bosons, and their asymmetries directly demonstrate parity violation in the couplings of the W-+/- to the light quarks. The observed electron and positron yields were used to estimate W-+/- boson production cross sections for the e(+/-) channels of sigma(pp -> W+X) X BR(W+ -> e(+) nu(e)) = 144.1 +/- 21.2(stat)(-10.3)(+3.4)(syst) +/- 21.6(norm) pb, and sigma(pp -> W-X) X BR(W- -> e(-) (nu) over bar (e)) = 3.17 +/- 12.1(stat)(-8.2)(+10.1)(syst) +/- 4.8(norm) pb.
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