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Sökning: WFRF:(Landen M) > (2005-2009)

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1.
  • Rydén, E., et al. (författare)
  • A history of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) impacts clinical outcome in adult bipolar patients regardless of current ADHD
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - Malden, USA : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-690X. ; 120:3, s. 239-246
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The occurrence of comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might have an impact of the course of the bipolar disorder.Method: Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 159) underwent a comprehensive evaluation with respect to affective symptoms. Independent psychiatrists assessed childhood and current ADHD, and an interview with a parent was undertaken.Results: The prevalence of adult ADHD was 16%. An additional 12% met the criteria for childhood ADHD without meeting criteria for adult ADHD. Both these groups had significantly earlier onset of their first affective episode, more frequent affective episodes (except manic episodes), and more interpersonal violence than the bipolar patients without a history of ADHD.Conclusion: The fact that bipolar patients with a history of childhood ADHD have a different clinical outcome than the pure bipolar group, regardless of whether the ADHD symptoms remained in adulthood or not, suggests that it represent a distinct early-onset phenotype of bipolar disorder.
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2.
  • Henningsson, S, et al. (författare)
  • Sex steroid-related genes and male-to-female transsexualism
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. ; 30:7, s. 657-664
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transsexualism is characterised by Lifelong discomfort with the assigned sex and a strong identification with the opposite sex. The cause of transsexualism is unknown, but it has been suggested that an aberration in the early sexual differentiation of various brain structures may be involved. Animal experiments have revealed that the sexual differentiation of the brain is mainly due to an influence of testosterone, acting both via androgen receptors (ARs) and-after aromatase-catalyzed conversion to estradiol-via estrogen receptors (ERs). The present study examined the possible importance of three polymorphisms and their pairwise interactions for the development of male-to-female transsexualism: a CAG repeat sequence in the first exon of the AR gene, a tetra nucleotide repeat polymorphism in intron 4 of the aromatase gene, and a CA repeat polymorphism in intron 5 of the ER beta gene. Subjects were 29 Caucasian male-to-female transsexuals and 229 healthy mate controls. Transsexuals differed from controls with respect to the mean Length of the ER repeat polymorphism, but not with respect to the length of the other two studied polymorphisms. However, binary logistic regression analysis revealed significant partial effects for all three polymorphisms, as well as for the interaction between the AR and aromatase gene polymorphisms, on the risk of developing transsexualism. Given the small number of transsexuals in the study, the results should be interpreted with the utmost caution. Further study of the putative role of these and other sex steroid-related genes for the development of transsexualism may, however, be worthwhile.
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3.
  • Månsson, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are often depressed or anxious--a case control study.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530. ; 33:8, s. 1132-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hyperandrogenic endocrine disorder affecting women of fertile age. The aim of this study was to survey whether the rate of clinical psychiatric disorders in PCOS differs from the normal population. METHOD: Women with PCOS (n=49) meeting the Rotterdam criteria for PCOS, and 49 age-matched controls identified from the population registry, were recruited. Trained clinicians used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview to establish lifetime occurrence of Axis I DSM diagnoses. Serum-testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin were analyzed. RESULTS: Women with PCOS had higher lifetime incidence of depressive episodes, social phobia, and eating disorders than controls. Suicide attempts were seven times more common in the PCOS group than in the controls. Current as well as lifetime use of antidepressants and anxiolytic drugs were more common in the PCOS group. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies have found that PCOS is associated with decreased quality of life and self-rated mental symptoms. This study demonstrates that PCOS is also linked to psychiatric syndromes as verified by structured clinical assessments. The clinical implication of this study is that clinicians treating women with PCOS should be aware that these women are a high risk group for common affective and anxiety disorders as well as suicide attempts.
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5.
  • Ekman, A, et al. (författare)
  • Low density and high affinity of platelet [3H]paroxetine binding in women with bulimia nervosa.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry research. - 0165-1781. ; 142:2-3, s. 219-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Impaired serotonin transmission has been suggested to be implicated in the pathophysiology of bulimia nervosa. As an indirect measure of brain serotonergic activity, the binding of tritiated ligands to platelet serotonin transporters has been studied in bulimia nervosa as well as in other putatively serotonin-related psychiatric disorders. In this study, the density and affinity of platelet serotonin transporters were assessed in 20 women meeting the DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa and in 14 controls without previous or ongoing eating disorder using [H-3]paroxetine as a ligand. In comparison to controls, women with bulimia nervosa had a significantly reduced number of platelet binding sites (B-max=721 +/- 313 vs. 1145 +/- 293 fmol/mg protein) and an increase in the affinity for the ligand demonstrated by a lower dissociaton constant (K-d=33 +/- 10 vs. 44 +/- 10 pM). A significant correlation between B-max and K-d values was found in patients but not in controls. Our results support the notion that bulimia nervosa is associated with a reduction in platelet serotonin transporter density. In addition, our study is the first to report that this reduced transporter density in women with bulimia nervosa is accompanied by an increase in the affinity of the transporter for the ligand. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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6.
  • Henningsson, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Possible association between the androgen receptor gene and autism spectrum disorder.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530. ; 34:5, s. 752-761
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism is a highly heritable disorder but the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. The higher prevalence of autism in men than in women, in conjunction with a number of other observations, has led to the suggestion that prenatal brain exposure to androgens may be of importance for the development of this condition. Prompted by this hypothesis, we investigated the potential influence of variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene on the susceptibility for autism. To this end, 267 subjects with autism spectrum disorder and 617 controls were genotyped for three polymorphisms in exon I of the AR gene: the CAG repeat, the GGN repeat and the rs6152 SNP. In addition, parents and affected siblings were genotyped for 118 and 32 of the cases, respectively. Case-control comparisons revealed higher prevalence of short CAG alleles as well as of the A allele of the rs6152 SNP in female cases than in controls, but revealed no significant differences with respect to the GGN repeat. Analysis of the 118 families using transmission disequilibrium test, on the other hand, suggested an association with the GGN polymorphism, the rare 20-repeat allele being undertransmitted to male cases and the 23-repeat allele being overtransmitted to female cases. Sequencing of the AR gene in 46 patients revealed no mutations or rare variants. The results tend some support for an influence of the studied polymorphisms on the susceptibility for autism, but argue against the possibility that mutations in the AR gene are common in subjects with this condition. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Landén, Mikael, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Placebo-controlled trial comparing intermittent and continuous paroxetine in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. - 0893-133X. ; 32:1, s. 153-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) do not have to be administered continuously to be effective for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), but can be given during luteal phases only. This is of practical importance, but also of theoretical interest since it suggests that the onset of action of SRIs is shorter in PMDD than in, for example depression. In this study, both continuous and intermittent SRI administration was compared with placebo, with the special purpose of analyzing if different PMDD symptoms respond differently depending on the treatment regimen. To this end, women meeting slightly modified DSM-IV criteria for PMDD (mean+/-SD age, 37+/-6.3 years) were treated for three menstrual cycles with paroxetine continuously, paroxetine during the luteal phase only, or placebo, the population completing at least one treatment cycle comprising 55-56 subjects per group. Continuous treatment with paroxetine reduced premenstrual symptoms effectively with a response rate of 85%. The effect size was highest for irritability (1.4) and lowest for lack of energy (0.5). Intermittent treatment was as effective as continuous treatment in reducing irritability, affect lability, and mood swings, but had a somewhat weaker effect on depressed mood and somatic symptoms. The study indicates that the response rate when treating PMDD with SRIs is high, and that irritability is a key target symptom. Symptoms such as irritability, affect lability, and mood swings appear to be more inclined to respond rapidly to SRIs, enabling intermittent treatment, than are, for example, the somatic symptoms.
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9.
  • Rydén, Eleonore, et al. (författare)
  • Lower CSF HVA and 5-HIAA in bipolar disorder type 1 with a history of childhood ADHD.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). - 1435-1463.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder with childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a subphenotype characterized by earlier age of onset, more frequent mood episodes, more suicide attempts, and more interpersonal violence than pure bipolar patients. The aim of this study was to test the biological validity of using childhood ADHD to subgroup bipolar disorder. The monoamine metabolites, homovanillinic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were determined in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 53 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder type 1, with (N = 17) and without (N = 36) a history of childhood ADHD. In addition to structured clinical interviews, childhood ADHD was assessed by a next of kin using the Autism-Tics, ADHD and other comorbidities questionnaire (A-TAC), and by patients themselves using the Wender Utah rating scale (WURS-25). Current ADHD symptoms were assessed by the Brown attention-deficit disorder scale (Brown ADD). Bipolar patients with childhood ADHD had significantly lower CSF concentration (mean +/- SD nmol/l) of HVA (89.0 +/- 32.5 vs. 115.8 +/- 47.1, P = 0.039) and 5-HIAA (88.7 +/- 38.5 vs. 116 +/- 47.9, P = 0.021) than pure bipolar patients. CSF MHPG did not differ between the groups. The WURS-25 score correlated negatively with both HVA (r = -0.27, P = 0.048) and 5-HIAA (r = -0.30, P = 0.027). Likewise, the Brown ADD total score correlated negatively with both HVA (r = -0.34, P = 0.013) and 5-HIAA (r = -0.35, P = 0.011). These findings indicate different monoaminergic function in patients with and without childhood ADHD in bipolar disorder type 1. This lends biological support to the notion that those with childhood ADHD represent a valid subphenotype of bipolar disorder.
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