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Sökning: WFRF:(Landen M) > (2015-2019) > (2016)

  • Resultat 11-20 av 32
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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  • Cesta, Carolyn E, et al. (författare)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome and psychiatric disorders: Co-morbidity and heritability in a nationwide Swedish cohort.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 1873-3360. ; 73, s. 196-203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting 5-15% of reproductive-aged women and characterized by high levels of circulating androgens. Given that androgens have been implicated in the aetiology of several psychiatric disorders, it was hypothesized that women with PCOS have high risk for psychiatric comorbidity. We aimed to investigate this risk amongst women with PCOS, as well as in their siblings, to elucidate if familial factors underlie any potential associations. Using the Swedish national registers, we identified all women diagnosed with PCOS between 1990 and 2013 (n=24,385), their full-siblings (n=25,921), plus matched individuals (1:10/100) from the general population and their full-siblings. Psychiatric disorder diagnoses were identified including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, personality and gender identity disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tics, attempted and completed suicide. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression and adjusted ORs (AOR) were determined by adjustment for comorbid psychiatric disorders. Overall, women with PCOS had an increased odds of having at least one psychiatric disorder (OR=1.56 [95CI%, 1.51-1.61]). Crude ORs showed associations with nearly all psychiatric disorders included in this study. Following adjustment for comorbid psychiatric disorders, women with PCOS were still at a significantly increased risk for bulimia, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive and anxiety disorders, personality disorders, with the highest AORs for ASD (AOR=1.55 [95%CI, 1.32-1.81]) and tics (AOR=1.65 [95%CI, 1.10-2.47]). Significantly higher AORs were found for ASD in both brothers and sisters of women with PCOS, and for depressive, anxiety, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the sisters only. Notably, the crude ORs for attempted suicide were 40% higher in women with PCOS and 16% higher in their unaffected sisters. However, the AORs were greatly attenuated indicating that underlying psychiatric comorbidity is important for this association. Women with PCOS had higher risks for a range of psychiatric disorders not shown before. Elevated risk in their siblings suggests shared familial factors between PCOS and psychiatric disorders. This study is an important first step towards identifying the underlying mechanisms for risk of psychiatric disorders in women with PCOS. Health professionals treating women with PCOS should be aware that these patients - as well as their family members - are important targets for mental health care.
  • Hughes, Timothy, et al. (författare)
  • A Loss-of-Function Variant in a Minor Isoform of ANK3 Protects Against Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Biological psychiatry. - 1873-2402. ; 80:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ankyrin-3 (ANK3) was one of the first genes to reach significance in a bipolar disorder genome-wide association study. Many subsequent association studies confirmed this finding and implicated this gene in schizophrenia. However, the exact nature of the role of ANK3 in the pathophysiology remains elusive. In particular, the specific isoforms involved and the nature of the imbalance are unknown.
  • Viktorin, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor use during pregnancy association with offspring birth size and gestational age
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press. - 0300-5771. ; 45:1, s. 170-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Depression around the time of pregnancy affects at least 1 in 8 women and treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in pregnant women has been increasing, but research on adverse effects on the fetus have so far commonly used designs unable to account for confounding. We aimed to examine the effects of prenatal SSRI exposure on offspring size outcomes and gestational age, and disentangle whether associations observed were due to the medication or other factors.Methods: We used a Swedish population-based cohort of 392,029 children and national registers to estimate the associations between prenatal exposure to SSRIs and depression on the outcomes birthweight, birth length, birth head circumference, gestational age at birth and preterm birth. A sub-sample of 1007 children was analysed in a within-family design that accounts for unmeasured parental genetic and environmental confounders.Results: Crude analyses revealed associations between prenatal SSRI exposure, and offspring birth size and gestational age. However, in the within-family analyses, only the association between SSRI exposure and reduced gestational age (-2.3 days; 95% confidence interval -3.8 to -0.8) was observed.Conclusions: This study indicates that prenatal SSRI exposure may not be causally related to offspring birth size. Rather, our analyses suggest that the association could be caused by other underlying differences instead of the medication per se. A small reduction of gestational age was associated with SSRI exposure in the within-family analysis and could be due to either the exposure, or other factors changing between pregnancies.
  • Abé, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Cortical thickness, volume and surface area in patients with bipolar disorder types I and II.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN. - 1488-2434. ; 41:4, s. 240-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common chronic psychiatric disorder mainly characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania and depression. The disorder is associated with cognitive impairments and structural brain abnormalities, such as lower cortical volumes in primarily frontal brain regions than healthy controls. Although bipolar disorder types I (BDI) and II (BDII) exhibit different symptoms and severity, previous studies have focused on BDI. Furthermore, the most frequently investigated measure in this population is cortical volume. The aim of our study was to investigate abnormalities in patients with BDI and BDII by simultaneously analyzing cortical volume, thickness and surface area, which yields more information about disease- and symptom-related neurobiology.
  • Falla, D., et al. (författare)
  • Perceived pain extent is associated with disability, depression and self-efficacy in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pain. - WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 1090-3801. ; 20:9, s. 1490-1501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundCompletion of a pain drawing is a familiar task in those presenting with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Some people report pain almost over their entire body. Yet the reasons for larger pain extent have not been fully explored. MethodsA novel method was applied to quantify pain extent from the pain drawings of 205 individuals with chronic WAD. Pain extent was evaluated in relation to sex, age, educational level, insurance status and financial status. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to verify whether pain extent was associated with other health indicators including perceived pain and disability, health-related quality of life, pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy. ResultsPain extent was influenced by sex ((2):10.392, pamp;lt;0.001) with larger pain extent in women compared to men (7.887.66% vs. 5.406.44%). People with unsettled insurance claims ((2): 7.500, pamp;lt;0.05) and those with a worse financial situation ((2):12.223, pamp;lt;0.01) also had larger pain extent. Multiple linear regression models revealed that, when accounting for age, sex, education, insurance status, financial status and neck pain intensity, pain extent remained associated with perceived disability (pamp;lt;0.01), depression (pamp;lt;0.05) and self-efficacy (pamp;lt;0.001). ConclusionBy utilizing a novel method for pain extent quantification, this study shows that widespread pain is associated with a number of factors including perceived disability, depression and self-efficacy in individuals with chronic WAD. Widespread pain should alert the clinician to consider more specific psychological screening, particularly for depression and self-efficacy, in patients with WAD. What does this study add?Women with chronic WAD, those with unsettled insurance claims and those with poorer financial status perceive more widespread pain. When controlling for these factors, larger pain areas remain associated with perceived pain and disability, depression and self-efficacy. The pain drawing is useful to support psychological screening in people with chronic WAD.
  • Nordenskjöld, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Hesel-coil deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for depression - a systematic review.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nordic journal of psychiatry. - 1502-4725. ; 70:7, s. 492-497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One third of the depressed patients are not improved by antidepressant drugs and psychological treatments, and there is a need for additional treatments. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is being developed towards an alternative in treatment-resistant depression. Deep transcranial stimulation (dTMS) with the Hesel-coil (H-coil) is a further development of rTMS aiming to enhance the effect by getting the magnetic pulses to penetrate deeper into the brain.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 32
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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