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Sökning: WFRF:(Landen M) > (2015-2019) > (2017)

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  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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11.
  • Brus, O., et al. (författare)
  • Self-assessed remission rates after electroconvulsive therapy of depressive disorders
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European psychiatry. - Elsevier Masson. - 0924-9338. ; 45, s. 154-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) effectively treats severe depression, but not all patients remit. The aim of the study was to identify clinical factors that associate with ECT-induced remission in a community setting.METHODS: Depressed patients who underwent ECT in 2011-2014 were identified from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT. Remission was defined as self-rated Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores of 0-10 after ECT. Other registers provided data on previous antidepressant use, comorbidities, and demographics.RESULTS: Of 1671 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, 42.8% achieved remission. Older age, education length over 9 years, psychotic symptoms, shorter duration of preceding antidepressant use, pulse width stimulus≥0.50ms, absence of substance use disorders, anxiety diagnosis, lamotrigine, and benzodiazepines, were associated with remission.CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that psychotic subtype of depression and older age are clinically relevant predictors of a beneficial ECT effect. Additionally, ECT outcomes can be further improved by optimizing the treatment technique and concomitant medication.
12.
  • Brus, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Subjective Memory Immediately Following Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of ECT. - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1095-0680. ; 33:2, s. 96-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aims of the present study were to describe the short-term rate of subjective memory worsening (SMW) and identify factors of importance for SMW in a large clinical sample treated for depression with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).Methods: This register-based study included 1212 patients from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT. Subjective memory worsening was defined as a 2-point worsening on the memory item of the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale from before to within 1 week after treatment. Associations between patient characteristics and treatment factors were examined using logistic regression.Results: Subjective memory worsening was experienced in 26%. It was more common in women than in men (31% vs 18%; P < 0.001) and more common in patients aged 18 to 39 years than in patients 65 years or older (32% vs 22%; P = 0.008). Patients with less subjective memory disturbances before ECT had a greater risk of SMW. Patients in remission after ECT had a lower risk of SMW. A brief pulse width stimulus gave higher risk of SMW compared with ultrabrief pulse (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.47).Conclusions: Subjective memory worsening is reported by a minority of patients. However, young women are at risk of experiencing SMW. Ultrabrief pulse width stimulus could be considered for patients treated with unilateral electrode placement who experience SMW. Each patient should be monitored with regard to symptoms and adverse effects, and treatment should be adjusted on an individual basis to maximize the clinical effect and with efforts to minimize the cognitive adverse effects.
13.
  • Ekman, Carl Johan, et al. (författare)
  • A History of Psychosis in Bipolar Disorder is Associated With Gray Matter Volume Reduction.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Schizophrenia bulletin. - 1745-1701. ; 43:1, s. 99-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychotic symptoms are prevalent in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychiatric and neurological disorders, yet the neurobiological underpinnings of psychosis remain obscure. In the last decade, a large number of magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown differences in local gray matter volume between patients with different psychiatric syndromes and healthy controls. Few studies have focused on the symptoms, which these syndromes are constituted of. Here, we test the association between psychosis and gray matter volume by using a sample of 167 subjects with bipolar disorder, with and without a history of psychosis, and 102 healthy controls. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed on group level using a voxel-wise mass univariate analysis (Voxel-Based Morphometry). We found that patients with a history of psychosis had smaller gray matter volume in left fusiform gyrus, the right rostral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the left inferior frontal gyrus compared with patients without psychosis and with healthy controls. There was no volume difference in these areas between the no-psychosis group and healthy controls. These areas have previously been structurally and functionally coupled to delusions and hallucinations. Our finding adds further evidence to the probability of these regions as key areas in the development of psychotic symptoms.
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14.
  • Joas, Erik, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacological treatment and risk of psychiatric hospital admission in bipolar disorder
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry. - 0007-1250. ; 210:3, s. 197-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Clinical trials have examined the efficacy of drugs to prevent relapse in patients with bipolar disorder, however, their design often limits generalisation to routine clinical practice. To estimate the effectiveness of drugs used for maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder. We used national registers to identify 35 022 individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and information on lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, quetiapine and olanzapine treatment from 2006 to 2009. The main outcome was psychiatric hospital admissions. We used stratified cox regression to compare periods on and off medication within the same individual. Medication with lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, olanzapine and quetiapine was associated with reduced rates of admission to hospital. Lithium was more effective than quetiapine and olanzapine. The effects of specific drugs depended on the polarity of the mood episode. Our findings complement results from randomised controlled trails, but suggest that lithium is more effective than both quetiapine and olanzapine in routine clinical practice.
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15.
  • Johansson, Viktoria, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid microglia and neurodegenerative markers in twins concordant and discordant for psychotic disorders.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. - 1433-8491. ; 267:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are debilitating psychiatric disorders with partially shared symptomatology including psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment. Aberrant levels of microglia and neurodegenerative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers have previously been found in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We aimed to analyze familial and environmental influences on these CSF markers and their relation to psychiatric symptoms and cognitive ability. CSF was collected from 17 complete twin pairs, nine monozygotic and eight dizygotic, and from one twin sibling. Two pairs were concordant for schizophrenia, and 11 pairs discordant for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder, and four pairs were not affected by psychotic disorders. Markers of microglia activation [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14)], markers of β-amyloid metabolism (AβX-38, AβX-40, AβX-42 and Aβ1-42), soluble amyloid precursor proteins (sAPP-α and sAPP-β), total tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau), and CSF/serum albumin ratio were measured in CSF using immunoassays. Heritability of the CSF markers was estimated, and associations to psychiatric and cognitive measurements were analyzed. Heritability estimates of the microglia markers were moderate, whereas several neurodegenerative markers showed high heritability. In contrast, AβX-42, Aβ1-42, P-tau and CSF/serum albumin ratio were influenced by dominant genetic variation. Higher sCD14 levels were found in twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder compared to their not affected co-twins, and higher sCD14-levels were associated with psychotic symptoms. The study provides support for a significant role of sCD14 in psychotic disorders and a possible role of microglia activation in psychosis.
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16.
  • Kegel, Magdalena E, et al. (författare)
  • Kynurenic acid and psychotic symptoms and personality traits in twins with psychiatric morbidity.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry research. - 1872-7123. ; 247, s. 105-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased cytokines and kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate cytokines and kynurenines in the CSF of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to study these CSF markers in relation to psychotic symptoms and personality traits. CSF levels of tryptophan (TRP), KYNA, quinolinic acid (QUIN), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed in 23 twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and in their not affected co-twins. Ratings of psychotic symptoms and personality traits were made using the Scales for Assessment of Negative and Positive symptoms, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV - Axis II Disorders, and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief. A total score for psychotic symptoms and personality traits was constructed for analysis. CSF KYNA was associated with the score for psychotic symptom and personality traits. TNF-α and IL-8 were associated, and the intra-pair differences scores of TNF-α and IL-8 were highly correlated. Intraclass correlations indicated genetic influences on CSF KYNA, TRP, IL-8 and TNF-α. The association between KYNA and psychotic symptoms further supports a role of KYNA in psychotic disorders.
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17.
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18.
  • Sparding, Timea, et al. (författare)
  • Classification of cognitive performance in bipolar disorder.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cognitive neuropsychiatry. - 1464-0619. ; 22:5, s. 407-421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls.Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Data were analysed with multivariate techniques.A distinct subgroup (∼30%) could be identified that performed significantly poorer on tests concerning memory function. This cognitive phenotype subgroup did not differ from the majority of bipolar disorder patients with respect to other demographic or clinical characteristics.Whereas the majority of patients performed similar to controls, a subgroup of patients with bipolar disorder differed substantially from healthy controls in the correlation pattern of low-level cognitive abilities. This suggests that cognitive impairment is not a general trait in bipolar disorder but characteristic of a cognitive subgroup. This has important clinical implications for cognitive rehabilitation and remediation.
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19.
  • Viktorin, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • The Risk of Treatment-Emergent Mania With Methylphenidate in Bipolar Disorder
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Psychiatry. - Arlington, USA : American Psychiatric Publishing. - 0002-953X. ; 174:4, s. 341-348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The authors sought to determine the risk of treatment-emergent mania associated with methylphenidate, used in monotherapy or with a concomitant mood-stabilizing medication, in patients with bipolar disorder.Method: Using linked Swedish national registries, the authors identified 2,307 adults with bipolar disorder who initiated therapy with methylphenidate between 2006 and 2014. The cohort was divided into two groups: those with and those without concomitant mood-stabilizing treatment. To adjust for individual-specific confounders, including disorder severity, genetic makeup, and early environmental factors, Cox regression analyses were used, conditioning on individual to compare the rate of mania (defined as hospitalization for mania or a new dispensation of stabilizing medication) 0-3 months and 3-6 months after medication start following nontreated periods.Results: Patients on methylphenidate monotherapy displayed an increased rate of manic episodes within 3 months of medication initiation (hazard ratio=6.7, 95% CI=2.0-22.4), with similar results for the subsequent 3 months. By contrast, for patients taking mood stabilizers, the risk of mania was lower after starting methylphenidate (hazard ratio=0.6, 95% CI=0.4-0.9). Comparable results were observed when only hospitalizations for mania were counted.Conclusions: No evidence was found for a positive association between methylphenidate and treatment-emergent mania among patients with bipolar disorder who were concomitantly receiving a mood-stabilizing medication. This is clinically important given that up to 20% of people with bipolar disorder suffer from comorbid ADHD. Given the markedly increased hazard ratio of mania following methylphenidate initiation in bipolar patients not taking mood stabilizers, careful assessment to rule out bipolar disorder is indicated before initiating monotherapy with psychostimulants.
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20.
  • Cesta, Carolyn E, et al. (författare)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome, personality, and depression: A twin study.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 1873-3360. ; 85, s. 63-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at elevated risk for suffering from depression. Neuroticism is a personality trait that has been associated with an increased risk for developing major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to quantify and decompose the correlation between neuroticism, PCOS, and MDD into shared and unique genetic and environmental etiologies, by using quantitative genetic methods.In a cohort of 12,628 Swedish female twins born from 1959 to 1985, neuroticism, PCOS identified by symptoms of hyperandrogenemia (i.e., hirsutism) and oligo- and/or anovulation, and lifetime MDD status were determined through questionnaire responses. Structural equation modeling was used to study the genetic and environmental sources of the variation within, and covariation between neuroticism, PCOS, and MDD.Female twins with PCOS (n=752) had significantly higher levels of neuroticism than women without PCOS, and a 2-fold increase in odds for a lifetime prevalence of MDD. The phenotypic correlation between PCOS and MDD was 0.19, with 63% of the correlation attributable to common genetic factors between the two traits. When taking into account neuroticism, 41% was attributable to common genetic factors and 9% attributable to common environmental factors shared between all three traits, with the remainder attributable to components unique to PCOS and MDD.There are common genetic factors between neuroticism, PCOS, and MDD; however, neuroticism shares approximately half of the genetic and environmental components behind the phenotypic correlation between PCOS and MDD, providing some etiological evidence behind the comorbidity between PCOS and depression.
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