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Sökning: WFRF:(Landen M) > (2015-2019) > (2016)

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  • Rolstad, Sindre, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive reserve lessens the burden of white matter lesions on executive functions in bipolar disorder
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - 0033-2917. ; 46:15, s. 3095-3104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesizes that intellectually stimulating activities provide resilience against brain pathology/disease. Whereas brain abnormalities and cognitive impairment are frequently reported in bipolar disorder (BD), it is unknown whether the impact of brain alterations can be lessened by higher CR in BD. Method. We tested if higher CR would reduce the influence of total volumes of deep white matter hypointensities (WMH), ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and prefrontal cortex on memory, executive, and attention/speed functions in patients with BD (n = 75). Linear regression models with interaction terms for CR and brain volumes were applied to directly test if CR reduces the influence of brain pathology on cognitive domains. Results. CR reduced the influence of total volumes of deep WMH (beta=-0.38, Q = 0.003) and ventricular CSF (beta = -41, Q = 006) on executive functions. Conclusions. The interactions between CR and total volumes of deep WMH/ventricular CSF appear to account for executive functioning in BD. The results suggest that the concept of CR is applicable in BD. Higher reserve capacity in BD alters the relationship between brain pathology and clinical presentation.
  • Rolstad, Sindre, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms of BDNF and CACNA1C are not associated with cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder or healthy controls.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cognitive neuropsychiatry. - 1464-0619. ; 21:3, s. 271-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The cause of cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder (BD) is not well understood. BDNF and CACNA1C are two susceptibility genes for the disorder that have also been reported to be associated with cognitive deficits in the disorder, but the studies have been small and with conflicting results. We therefore attempted to replicate an association between cognitive dysfunction with the most commonly studied single nucleotide polymorphisms rs6265 and rs1006737.
  • Schwieler, Lilly, et al. (författare)
  • Electroconvulsive therapy suppresses the neurotoxic branch of the kynurenine pathway in treatment-resistant depressed patients
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroinflammation. - 1742-2094. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Neuroinflammation is increasingly recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of depression. Key inflammatory markers as well as kynurenic acid (KYNA) and quinolinic acid (QUIN), both tryptophan metabolites, have been associated with depressive symptoms and suicidality. The aim of the present study is to investigate the peripheral concentration of cytokines and tryptophan and kynurenine metabolites in patients with unipolar treatment-resistant depression before and after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), the most effective treatment for depression. Methods: Cytokines in plasma from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 19) and healthy volunteers (n = 14) were analyzed with electrochemiluminescence detection. Tryptophan and kynurenine metabolites were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LC/MS. KYNA was analyzed in a second healthy control cohort (n = 22). Results: Patients with MDD had increased plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared to healthy volunteers (P < 0.05). We also found an altered kynurenine metabolism in these patients displayed by decreased plasma levels of KYNA (P < 0.0001) as well as a significantly increased QUIN/KYNA ratio (P < 0.001). Plasma levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, and QUIN did not differ between patients and controls. Treatment with ECT was associated with a significant decrease in the plasma levels of tryptophan (P < 0.05), kynurenine (P < 0.01), and QUIN (P < 0.001), whereas plasma levels of KYNA did not change. The QUIN/KYNA ratio was found to significantly decrease in ECT-treated patients (P < 0.05). There was a significant inverse correlation between symptom severity and kynurenine levels at baseline (r = -0.67, P = 0.002). Conclusions: This study confirms an imbalanced kynurenine pathway in MDD supporting the hypothesis of a netstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors in the disorder. Treatment with ECT profoundly decreased QUIN, an NMDA-receptor agonist previously suggested to be implicated in the pathogenesis of depression, an effect that might have bearing for the good clinical outcome of ECT.
  • Viktorin, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Heritability of Perinatal Depression and Genetic Overlap With Nonperinatal Depression.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The American journal of psychiatry. - 1535-7228. ; 173:2, s. 158-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on perinatal depression, and the genetic overlap between perinatal depression and nonperinatal depression. METHOD: Analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling for 1) the lifetime version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in 3,427 Swedish female twins and 2) clinical diagnoses of depression separated into perinatal depression and nonperinatal depression in a Swedish population-based cohort of 580,006 sisters. RESULTS: In the twin study, the heritability of perinatal depression was estimated at 54% (95% CI=35%-70%), with the remaining variance attributable to nonshared environment (46%; 95% CI=31%-65%). In the sibling design, the heritability of perinatal depression was estimated at 44% (95% CI=35%-52%) and the heritability of nonperinatal depression at 32% (95% CI=24%-41%). Bivariate analysis showed that 14% of the total variance (or 33% of the genetic variance) in perinatal depression was unique for perinatal depression. CONCLUSIONS: The heritability of perinatal depression was estimated at 54% and 44%, respectively, in separate samples, and the heritability of nonperinatal depression at 32%. One-third of the genetic contribution was unique to perinatal depression and not shared with nonperinatal depression, suggesting only partially overlapping genetic etiologies for perinatal depression and nonperinatal depression. The authors suggest that perinatal depression constitutes a subset of depression that could be prioritized for genomic discovery efforts. The study findings have direct translational impact that can assist clinicians in the counseling of their patients regarding risk and prognosis of perinatal depression.
  • Yoshimi, N., et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid metabolomics identifies a key role of isocitrate dehydrogenase in bipolar disorder: evidence in support of mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184. ; 21:11, s. 1504-1510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) has been reported, the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers. In this study, we performed metabolomics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from male BD patients (n = 54) and age-matched male healthy controls (n = 40). Subsequently, postmortem brain analyses, genetic analyses, metabolomics of CSF samples from rats treated with lithium or valproic acid were also performed. After multivariate logistic regression, isocitric acid (isocitrate) levels were significantly higher in the CSF from BD patients than healthy controls. Furthermore, gene expression of two subtypes (IDH3A and IDH3B) of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from BD patients was significantly lower than that of controls, although the expression of other genes including, aconitase (ACO1, ACO2), IDH1, IDH2 and IDH3G, were not altered. Moreover, protein expression of IDH3A in the cerebellum from BD patients was higher than that of controls. Genetic analyses showed that IDH genes (IDH1, IDH2, IDH3A, IDH3B) and ACO genes (ACO1, ACO2) were not associated with BD. Chronic (4 weeks) treatment with lithium or valproic acid in rats did not alter CSF levels of isocitrate, and mRNA levels of Idh3a, Idh3b, Aco1 and Aco2 genes in the rat brain. These findings suggest that abnormality in the metabolism of isocitrate by IDH3A in the mitochondria plays a key role in the pathogenesis of BD, supporting the mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis of BD. Therefore, IDH3 in the citric acid cycle could potentially be a novel therapeutic target for BD.
  • Jakobsson, Joel, et al. (författare)
  • CACNA1C polymorphism and altered phosphorylation of tau in bipolar disorder.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. - 1472-1465. ; 208:2, s. 195-196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several genome-wide association studies and case-control studies have associated the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1006737, situated in CACNA1C encoding the alpha 1C subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel, with bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders. However, the causal pathway linking genetic variants in CACNA1C with increased risk for developing brain disorders remains unclear. Here, we explored the association between the rs1006737 SNP and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers. We found a significant association between the risk allele in rs1006737 and a decreased CSF hyperphosphorylated tau/total tau ratio in patients with bipolar disorder, thus linking variation in the CACNA1C gene to a neurochemical marker of neuroaxonal plasticity in those with this disorder.
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  • Resultat 21-30 av 32
  • Föregående 12[3]4Nästa
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