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Sökning: WFRF:(Landen M) > (2010-2014)

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31.
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32.
  • Bölte, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • The Roots of Autism and ADHD Twin Study in Sweden (RATSS)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - 1832-4274. ; 17:3, s. 164-176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurodevelopmental disorders affect a substantial minority of the general population. Their origins are still largely unknown, but a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors causing disturbances of the central nervous system's maturation and a variety of higher cognitive skills is presumed. Only limited research of rather small sample size and narrow scope has been conducted in neurodevelopmental disorders using a twin-differences design. The Roots of Autism and ADHD Twin Study in Sweden (RATSS) is an ongoing project targeting monozygotic twins discordant for categorical or dimensional autistic and inattentive/hyperactive-impulsive phenotypes as well as other neurodevelopmental disorders, and typically developing twin controls. Included pairs are 9 years of age or older, and comprehensively assessed for psychopathology, medical history, neuropsychology, and dysmorphology, as well as structural, functional, and molecular brain imaging. Specimens are collected for induced pluripotent (iPS) and neuroepithelial stem cells, genetic, gut bacteria, protein-/monoamine, and electron microscopy analyses. RATSS's objective is to generate a launch pad for novel surveys to understand the complexity of genotype-environment-phenotype interactions in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By October 2013, RATSS had collected data from 55 twin pairs, among them 10 monozygotic pairs discordant for autism spectrum disorder, seven for ADHD, and four for other neurodevelopmental disorders. This article describes the design, recruitment, data collection, measures, collected pairs' characteristics, as well as ongoing and planned analyses in RATSS. Potential gains of the study comprise the identification of environmentally mediated biomarkers, the emergence of candidates for drug development, translational modeling, and new leads for prevention of incapacitating outcomes.
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  • Falhammar, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Increased psychiatric morbidity in men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 99:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context:Reports on psychiatric morbidity in males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are lacking.Objective:To study psychiatric disorders in CAH males.Design, Setting and Participants:We studied males with CAH (21-hydroxylase deficiency, n=253; CYP21A2 mutations known, n=185), and compared them with controls (n=25300). Data were derived through linkage of national population-based registers. We assessed the subgroups of CYP21A2 genotype separately (null, I2splice, I172N, P30L and NC), as well as outcomes before and after the introduction of national neonatal screening in 1986.Main Outcome Measures:Psychiatric disorders including attempted and completed suicide (suicidality).Results:Psychiatric disorders (suicidality not included), suicidality and alcohol misuse were increased in CAH males compared with controls (OR 1.5, 2.3, and 1.9; 95%CI 1.1-2.2, 1.1-5.0, and 1.0-3.5). In the null genotype group, no increased rates were seen; in the I2splice group, psychiatric disorders, personality disorders and alcohol misuse were increased; in the I172N group suicide attempt and drug misuse were increased; and in the P30L and NC group psychotic disorders were increased. In CAH males born before the neonatal screening, the rate of psychiatric disorders and suicidality were increased, but only psychotic disorders in those born after. There was no increased risk for any neurodevelopmental disorder.Conclusions:CAH males have an increased psychiatric morbidity. Psychiatric morbidity was not raised in the most severe genotype group. Late diagnosis of CAH may explain some of the findings. Those born before the introduction of neonatal screening were more affected, which may be explained by the higher age.
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39.
  • Jakobsson, Joel, et al. (författare)
  • Elevated Concentrations of Neurofilament Light Chain in The Cerebrospinal Fluid of Bipolar Disorder Patients.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. - 1740-634X. ; 39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by mood swings between manic and depressive states. The etiology and pathogenesis of BD is unclear, but many of the affected cognitive domains, as well as neuroanatomical abnormalities, resemble symptoms and signs of small vessel disease. In small vessel disease, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers reflecting damages in different cell types and subcellular structures of the brain have been established. Hence, we hypothesized that CSF markers related to small vessel disease may also be applicable as biomarkers for bipolar disorder. To investigate this hypothesis, we sampled CSF from 133 patients with bipolar disorder and 86 healthy controls. The concentrations of neurofilament light chain (NF-L), myelin basic protein (MBP), S100B, and heart-fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) were measured in CSF and analyzed in relation to diagnosis, clinical characteristics, and ongoing medications. Hereby we found an elevation of the marker of subcortical axonal damage, NF-L, in bipolar subjects. We also identified positive associations between NF-L and treatment with atypical antipsychotics, MBP and lamotrigine, and H-FABP and lithium. These findings indicate axonal damage as an underlying neuropathological component of bipolar disorder, though the clinical value of elevated NF-L remains to be validated in follow-up studies. The associations between current medications and CSF brain injury markers might aid in the understanding of both therapeutic and adverse effects of these drugs.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article peview online, 03 April 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.81.
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  • Jedel, Elizabeth, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Anxiety and depression symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with controls matched for body mass index.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human reproduction. - 1460-2350. ; 25:2, s. 450-456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) than in those without this disorder. Possible confounding effects of overweight and obesity are suggested. The aim was to compare symptoms of anxiety and depression in women with PCOS and controls matched for age, body weight and body mass index (BMI). METHODS Women with PCOS (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) were recruited from the community. Persons with ongoing psychotropic medication were excluded. All potential participants underwent gynecological examination to confirm case-control status. Participants completed the self-reported versions of the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S) and Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S). RESULTS Women with PCOS had a higher BSA-S score compared with controls (median, range: 10.5, 1-24 versus 5.0, 0-28, P < 0.001). They scored higher on the following four individual symptoms: reduced sleep (2.0, 0-5 versus 0, 0-2, P < 0.001), worry (1.5, 0-4 versus 0, 0-6, P = 0.004), phobias (1, 0-4 versus 0, 0-3, P < 0.001), and pain (1, 0-3 versus 0, 0-2, P < 0.001). No statistical difference was demonstrated regarding MADRS-S scores (10.0, 0-27 versus 5.5, 0-24, P = 0.053). Only one of the nine MADRS-S symptoms, reduced sleep, which is also included in the BSA-S, differed between cases and controls. CONCLUSIONS Several anxiety symptoms distinguished women with PCOS from a control group matched on BMI. A better understanding of the symptoms is needed to identify and alleviate anxiety symptoms in this vulnerable group.
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