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61.
  • Olsson, Sara K, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenic acid is associated with manic and psychotic features in patients with bipolar I disorder.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Bipolar disorders. - 1399-5618. ; 14:7, s. 719-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Olsson SK, Sellgren C, Engberg G, Landén M, Erhardt S. Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenic acid is associated with manic and psychotic features in patients with bipolar I disorder. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 719-726. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objectives:  Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an end metabolite of tryptophan degradation, antagonizes glutamatergic and cholinergic receptors in the brain. Recently, we reported elevated levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) KYNA in male patients with bipolar disorder. Here, we investigate the relationship between symptomatology and the concentration of CSF KYNA in patients with bipolar I disorder. Methods:  CSF KYNA levels from euthymic male {n = 21; mean age: 41 years [standard deviation (SD) = 14]} and female [n = 34; mean age: 37 years (SD = 14)] patients diagnosed with bipolar I disorder were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results:  Euthymic bipolar I disorder patients with a lifetime occurrence of psychotic features had higher CSF levels of KYNA {2.0 nm [standard error of the mean (SEM) = 0.2]; n = 43} compared to patients without any history of psychotic features [1.3 nm (SEM = 0.2); n = 12] (p = 0.01). Logistic regression, with age as covariate, similarly showed an association between a history of psychotic features and CSF KYNA levels [n = 55; odds ratio (OR) = 4.9, p = 0.03]. Further, having had a recent manic episode (within the previous year) was also associated with CSF KYNA adjusted for age (n = 34; OR = 4.4, p = 0.03), and the association remained significant when adjusting for a lifetime history of psychotic features (OR = 4.1, p = 0.05). Conclusions:  Although the causality needs to be determined, the ability of KYNA to influence dopamine transmission and behavior, along with previous reports showing increased brain levels of the compound in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, may indicate a possible pathophysiological role of KYNA in the development of manic or psychotic symptoms.
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62.
  • Pålsson, Erik, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • Neurocognitive function in bipolar disorder: a comparison between bipolar I and II disorder and matched controls
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry. - 1471-244X. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Background Cognitive deficits have been documented in patients with bipolar disorder. Further, it has been suggested that the degree and type of cognitive impairment differ between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder, but data is conflicting and remains inconclusive. This study aimed to clarify the suggested differences in cognitive impairment between patients with bipolar I and II disorder in a relatively large, clinically stable sample while controlling for potential confounders. Methods 67 patients with bipolar I disorder, 43 with bipolar II disorder, and 86 randomly selected population-based healthy controls were compared. A number of neuropsychological tests were administered, assessing verbal and visual memory and executive functions. Patients were in a stable phase during testing. Results Patients with bipolar type I and type II were cognitively impaired compared to healthy controls, but there were no statistically significant differences between the two subtypes. The strongest predictor of cognitive impairment within the patient group was current antipsychotic treatment. Conclusions The present study suggests that the type and degree of cognitive dysfunction is similar in bipolar I and II patients. Notably, treatment with antipsychotics - but not a history of psychosis - was associated with more severe cognitive impairment. Given that patients with bipolar I disorder are more likely to be on antipsychotic drugs, this might explain why some previous studies have found that patients with type I bipolar disorder are more cognitively impaired than those with type II.
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63.
  • Sandberg, Johan V, et al. (författare)
  • Low neuropeptide Y in cerebrospinal fluid in bipolar patients is associated with previous and prospective suicide attempts.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. - 1873-7862. ; 24:12, s. 1907-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The attempted and accomplished suicide rates in patients with bipolar disorder are 40-50% and 15-20%, respectively. No biological markers that help predict suicide been identified. Human and experimental animal data indicate that dysregulation of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system plays a role in depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to explore if low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NPY is associated with (1) past suicide attempts, (2) future suicide attempts, and (3) trait anxiety. Lumbar puncture was performed on 120 clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder enrolled in the St Göran Bipolar Project, where the number of previous suicide attempts was documented. NPY-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) was determined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Patients were reexamined one year after the lumbar puncture and suicide attempts were recorded. NPY-LI was significantly lower in patients with a history of suicide attempt than in patients who had not attempted suicide prior to lumbar puncture. Importantly, NPY-LI was markedly lower in patients who made a suicide attempt during the follow-up period compared to patients who did not. Patients who attempted suicide during the follow-up also had markedly lower NPY-LI than those with previous suicide attempts who did not reattempt. Our results suggest that low CSF NPY-LI predicts future suicide attempts. The data are in line with the hypothesis that NPY signaling is altered in affective disorders and states of emotional dysregulation.
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64.
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65.
  • Sellgren, C., et al. (författare)
  • The Association Between Schizophrenia and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Population-Based Swedish Study on Intraindividual and Familial Risks
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Schizophrenia Bulletin. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0586-7614 .- 1745-1701. ; 40:6, s. 1552-1559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Numerous studies have reported a reduced risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in schizophrenia. The mechanisms are unknown, but recent genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia have shown strong associations with markers spanning the major histocompatibility complex region, indicating a possible role for adaptive immunity also in schizophrenia. In this population-based cohort study, we assess the associations between RA and schizophrenia and the extent to which any observed associations are specific to RA/schizophrenia. We then extend the assessments per RA subtype and to risks in first-degree relatives. The study population included every individual identified in the Swedish Population Register born in Sweden between 1932 and 1989. The risk for RA in schizophrenia was significantly decreased (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.59-0.80), but similar reductions were noted for osteoarthritis (a noninflammatory joint disorder) and ankylosing spondylitis (a non-RA inflammatory disorder). Comparable associations were seen in schizoaffective subjects while no significant associations were observed in bipolar disorder. Overall, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients were not at reduced risk of RA, but the risk for seronegative RA was significantly decreased in children and siblings of schizophrenia probands (HR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.02-0.95 and HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 049-0.92, respectively). In conclusion, our intraindividual analyses suggest that differential misclassification bias is an important factor for the observed inverse association and emphasize the need of optimized care-provision for nonpsychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Our familial analyses indicted the possibility of an inverse coinheritance of schizophrenia and seronegative RA.
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66.
  • Selvaggi, Gennaro, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • The 2011 WPATH Standards of Care and Penile Reconstruction in Female-to-Male Transsexual Individuals.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Advances in urology. - 1687-6377. ; 2012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) currently publishes the Standards of Care (SOC), to provide clinical guidelines for health care of transsexual, transgender and gender non-conforming persons in order to maximize health and well-being by revealing gender dysphoria. An updated version (7th version, 2011) of the WPATH SOC is currently available. Differences between the 6th and the 7th versions of the SOC are shown; the SOC relevant to penile reconstruction in female-to-male (FtM) persons are emphasized, and we analyze how the 2011 WPATH SOC is influencing the daily practice of physicians involved in performing a penile reconstruction procedure for these patients. Depending by an individual's goals and expectations, the most appropriate surgical technique should be performed: the clinic performing penile reconstruction should be able to offer the whole range of techniques, such as: metoidioplasty, pedicle and free flaps phalloplasty procedures. The goals that physicians and health care institutions should achieve in the next years, in order to improve the care of female-to-male persons, consist in: informing in details the individuals applying for penile reconstruction about all the implications; referring specific individuals to centers capable to deliver a particular surgical technique; implementing the surgery with the most updated refinements.
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67.
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68.
  • Tidemalm, D., et al. (författare)
  • Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder: Risk Factors in a Cohort of 6086 Patients
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 9:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Bipolar disorder is associated with high risk of self-harm and suicide. We wanted to investigate risk factors for attempted suicide in bipolar patients. Method: This was a cohort study of 6086 bipolar patients (60% women) registered in the Swedish National Quality Register for Bipolar Disorder 2004-2011 and followed-up annually 2005-2012. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for fatal or non-fatal attempted suicide during follow-up. Results: Recent affective episodes predicted attempted suicide during follow-up (men: odds ratio = 3.63, 95% Cl = 1.76-7.51; women: odds ratio = 2.81, 95% Cl = 1.78-4.44), as did previous suicide attempts (men: odds ratio = 3.93, 95% Cl = 2.48-6.24; women: odds ratio = 4.24, 95% Cl = 3.06-5.88) and recent psychiatric inpatient care (men: odds ratio = 3.57, 95% Cl = 1.59-8.01; women: odds ratio = 2.68, 95% Cl = 1.60-4.50). Further, those with many lifetime depressive episodes were more likely to attempt suicide. Comorbid substance use disorder was a predictor in men; many lifetime mixed episodes, early onset of mental disorder, personality disorder, and social problems related to the primary group were predictors in women. Conclusion: The principal clinical implication of the present study is to pay attention to the risk of suicidal behaviour in bipolar patients with depressive features and more severe or unstable forms of the disorder.
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69.
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70.
  • Wang, Aoxue, et al. (författare)
  • MicroRNA-31 is overexpressed in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and regulates cell motility and colony formation ability of tumor cells.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a malignancy of epidermal keratinocytes that is responsible for approximately 20% of skin cancer-related death yearly. We have previously compared the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile of cSCC to healthy skin and found the dysregulation of miRNAs in human cSCC. In this study we show that miR-31 is overexpressed in cSCC (n = 68) compared to healthy skin (n = 34) and precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratosis, n = 12). LNA in situ hybridization revealed that miR-31 was specifically up-regulated in tumor cells. Mechanistic studies of inhibition of endogenous miR-31 in human metastatic cSCC cells revealed suppressed migration, invasion and colony forming ability, whereas overexpression of miR-31 induced these phenotypes. These results indicate that miR-31 regulates cancer-associated phenotypes of cSCC and identify miR-31 as a potential target for cSCC treatment.
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