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Sökning: WFRF:(Larsson Lars) > Wågberg Lars

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1.
  • Larsson, Per A., 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Ductile cellulose nanocomposite films fabricated from nanofibrillated cellulose after partial conversion to dialcohol cellulose
  • 2013
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ductile nanofibrillar nanocomposite films with a strain at break of 18%, and a tensile strength of 185 MPa, have been fabricated from nanofibrillated bleached kraft fibres partially converted to dialcohol cellulose prior to homogenisation. The conversion to dialcohol cellulose was performed by oxidation with sodium periodate to a degree of oxidation of ca. 30%, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride, and the fabricated films consequentially had one stiff cellulose phase and one flexible dialcohol cellulose phase. The liberated nanofibrils were characterised by AFM, after adsorption onto a silica surface, and imaging in tapping mode showed a blend of elementary fibrils with a width of 5 nm and inter-entangled fibril aggregates with a width of 15-20 nm. Besides good mechanical properties, the films also provided good barrier properties; at 0% RH the oxygen permeability was 2 ml·µm/(m2·d·kPa).
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2.
  • Larsson, Per A., et al. (författare)
  • Highly ductile fibres and sheets by core-shell structuring of the cellulose nanofibrils
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cellulose (London). - 0969-0239. ; 21:1, s. 323-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A greater ductility of cellulosic materials is important if they are to be used in increasingly advanced applications. This study explores the potential for using chemical core-shell structuring on the nanofibril level to alter the mechanical properties of cellulose fibres and sheets made thereof. The structuring was achieved by a selective oxidation of the cellulose C2-C3 bonds with sodium periodate, followed by a reduction of the aldehydes formed with sodium borohydride, i.e. locally transforming cellulose to dialcohol cellulose. The resulting fibres were morphologically characterised and the sheets made of these modified fibres were mechanically tested. These analyses showed a minor decrease in the degree of polymerisation, a significantly reduced cellulose crystal width and a greater ductility. At 27 % conversion of the available C2-C3 bonds, sheets could be strained 11 %, having a stress at break of about 90 MPa, and consequently a remarkable tensile energy absorption at rupture of about 9 kJ/kg, i.e. 3-4 times higher than a strong conventional paper. Zero-span tensile measurements indicated that the treatment increased the ductility not only of sheets but also of individual fibres. This suggests that the amorphous and molecularly more mobile dialcohol cellulose is located as a shell surrounding the crystalline core of the cellulose fibrils, and that, at deformations beyond the yield point, this facilitates plastic deformation both within and between individual fibres.
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3.
  • Svensson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Preparation of dry ultra-porous cellulosic fibres : Characterization and possible initial uses
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Carbohydrate Polymers. - 0144-8617. ; 92:1, s. 775-783
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dry ultra-porous cellulose fibres were obtained using a liquid exchange procedure in which water was replaced in the following order: water, methanol, acetone, and finally pentane: thereafter, the fibres were dried with Ar(g). The dry samples (of TEMPO-oxidized dissolving pulp) had a specific surface area of 130 m(2) g(-1) as measured using BET nitrogen gas adsorption. The open structure in the dry state was also revealed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. This dry open structure was used as a scaffold for in situ polymerization. Both poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(butylacrylate) were successfully used as matrix polymers for the composite material (fibre/polymer), comprising approximately 20 wt% fibres. Atomic force microscopy phase imaging indicated a nanoscale mixing of the matrix polymer and the cellulose fibril aggregates and this was also supported by mechanical testing of the prepared composite where the open fibre structure produced superior composites. The fibre/polymer composite had a significantly reduced water absorption capacity also indicating an efficient filling of the fibre structure with the matrix polymer.
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4.
  • Andersson, Linnéa, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating pore space in macroporous ceramics with water-based porosimetry
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Ceramic Society. - 0002-7820. ; 96:6, s. 1916-1922
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We show that water-based porosimetry (WBP), a facile, simple, and nondestructive porosimetry technique, accurately evaluates both the pore size distribution and throat size distribution of sacrificially templated macroporous alumina. The pore size distribution and throat size distribution derived from the WBP evaluation in uptake (imbibition) and release (drainage) mode, respectively, were corroborated by mercury porosimetry and X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT). In contrast with mercury porosimetry, the WBP also provided information on the presence of "dead-end pores" in the macroporous alumina.
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5.
  • Bruce, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • A comparative study of covalent grafting and physical adsorption of PCL onto cellulose
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A growing concern for the environment has, in the past years, directed the research towards a bigger focus on new “greener” materials, such as cellulose-reinforced options. Cellulose is the most abundant organic raw material in the world and it is a versatile material. However, to be able to use it in applications where it is not inherently compatible, a modification is often necessary.1-3 One common method to achieve this modification is to graft polymers onto/from the cellulose chain. This can change the inherent properties of cellulose to attain new properties, such as dimensional stability and water repellency.3 In addition to this, it has been shown that polyectrolytes can be physiosorbed onto charged surfaces.4 Due to this, it is possible to physically modify cellulose by adsorbing a polymer through electrostatic interactions instead of attaching it with a covalent bond.5However, a more detailed investigation concerning differences of covalent and physical attachment of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) onto cellulose, has to the author’s best knowledge not been performed. Therefore, this project aims to compare these two techniques. Covalently bonded PCL was grafted by surface-initiated ring opening polymerization (SI-ROP) from the cellulose. For the adsorption approach, a block copolymer consisting of PCL and a shorter segment of poly(di(methylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) was made combining ROP and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The PDMAEMA-part was then quaternized, which resulted in a cationically charged chain – a polyelectrolyte. This can then be used as an electrostatic linker allowing the PDMAEMA-PCL copolymer to be adsorbed onto the negatively charged cellulose model surface. Finally, differences between the two approaches are evaluated regarding for example surface coverage and grafting/physiosorption efficiency investigated with techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM).
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6.
  • Bruce, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative study of covalent grafting and physical adsorption of PCL on to cellulose
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work, an investigation concerning differences between covalent and physical attachment of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to a nanocellulose modell surface was conducted. For the covalent attachment, ring-opening polymerization (ROP) was performed using the “grafting-from” approach, building the polymer from the surface. For the physical attachment, a block copolymer consisting of PCL and poly(di(methylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) was made combining ROP and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The PDMAEMA-part was then quaternized, which resulted in a charged chain – a polyelectrolyte. The charges allow for the PDMAEMA-PCL copolymer to be adsorbed onto the nanocellulose modell surface. The length of the PDMAEMA-part was kept constant (DP=20), and the length of PCL was varied (DP=150, 300, 600) for both the covalently attached polymer and for the copolymer. Finally, differences between the two approaches were evaluated regarding for example surface coverage and grafting/physiosorption efficiency investigated with techniques such as atomic force microscopy.
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7.
  • Bruce, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Preparation and evaluation of a block copolymer compatibilizer for biocomposite applications
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, the concept of using a free polymer as a compatibilzer in biocomposite applications has been evaluated with focus on the polymer poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), commonly used in conventional grafting onto/from cellulose. A block copolymer consisting of PCL and a shorter segment of poly(di(methylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) was made combining ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The length of the PDMAEMA-part was kept constant, and the PCL-part was varied in three different lengths, yielding three separate block copolymers. As a final step, the PDMAEMA-part was quaternized, which resulted in cationically charged chains –polyelectrolytes. The charged part could then be used as an electrostatic linker allowing the PDMAEMA-PCL copolymer to be adsorbed onto negatively charged cellulose model surfaces. Finally, these cellulose model surfaces were evaluated regarding for example amount of polymer adsorbed and hydrophobic character, investigated with techniques such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and contact angle measurements.
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8.
  • Carrick, Christopher, et al. (författare)
  • Hollow cellulose capsules from CO2 saturated cellulose solutions - Their preparation and characterization
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: RSC Advances. - 2046-2069. ; 3:7, s. 2462-2469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new material consisting of mm-sized hollow cellulose spheres, for biomedical applications or for the preparation of low weight porous materials has been prepared by a unique solution precipitation (SP) method. The technique is based on three separate steps. In the first step, high molecular mass, non-modified cellulose is dissolved in a suitable solvent. This cellulose solution is then saturated with a suitable gas (CO2 or N2 in the present work) and finally this gas-saturated solution is drop-wise added to a water reservoir. In this step, the cellulose is precipitated and a gas bubble is nucleated in the center of the cellulose sphere. When stored in water, the hollow center is filled with water, indicating that the capsule wall is porous in nature. This was also supported by BET-area measurements as well as by high resolution SEM-images of broken capsule walls. The internal void volume of a capsule was about 5 μl and the wall volume was about 8 μl. It was also established that the properties of the cellulose capsules, i.e. wall and void volume, the specific surface area, the average pore size of the capsule wall, the wall density, and the compressive load capacity could be tuned by the choice of cellulose concentration in the solution before precipitation. The capsule wall volume and void volume were also affected by the choice of gas, the gas pressure and the gas dissolution time during the gas saturation step. The response of the cellulose wall of the prepared capsules to changes in pH and ion concentration in the surrounding solution was also investigated. The swelling-shrinking behavior was further investigated by introducing more charges to the capsule wall, via carboxymethylation of the cellulose. This was achieved by using carboxymethylated cellulose which increased the swelling-shrinking effect. The results show a typical polyelectrolyte gel behavior of the capsule wall and the wet modulus of the cellulose wall was determined to be between 0.09-0.2 MPa depending on the charge of the cellulose in the capsule wall. Furthermore, the freeze dried cellulose spheres had a modulus of 1.9-7.4 MPa, depending on the cellulose concentration during the preparation of the spheres. These cellulose capsules are suitable both for the preparation of porous materials, where these larger spheres are joined together in 3D-shaped materials, and for controlled release where the interior of the capsules is filled with active substances and these substances are released by controlling the pores in the capsule walls.
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9.
  • Carrick, Christopher, et al. (författare)
  • Native and functionalized micrometre-sized cellulose capsules prepared by microfluidic flow focusing
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: RSC Advances. - 2046-2069. ; 4:37, s. 19061-19067
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cellulose capsules with average outer and inner radii of approximately 44 mu m and 29 mm respectively were prepared from cellulose dissolved in a mixture of lithium chloride and dimethylacetamide using a microfluidic flow focusing device (MFFD). The MFFD had three inlets where octane oil in a cellulose solution in silicone oil was used to produce a double emulsion containing a cellulose capsule. This technique enables the formation of capsules with a narrow size distribution which can be beneficial for drug delivery or controlled release capsules. In this respect, cellulose is a highly interesting material since it is known to cause no autoimmune reactions when used in contact with human tissue. Furthermore, by controlling the chemical properties of the cellulose, it is possible to trigger a swelling of the capsules and consequentially the release of an encapsulated substance, e. g. a model drug, when the capsule becomes exposed to an external stimulus. To demonstrate this, capsules were functionalized by carboxymethylation to be pH- responsive and to expand approximately 10% when subjected to a change in pH from 3 to 10. The diffusion constant of a model drug, a 4 kDa fluorescently labelled dextran, through the native capsule wall was estimated to be 6.5 X 10(-14) m(2) s(-1) by fitting fluorescence intensity data to Fick's second law.
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10.
  • Cervin, Nicholas Tchang, et al. (författare)
  • Ultra porous nanocellulose aerogels as separation medium for mixtures of oil/water liquids
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cellulose (London). - 0969-0239. ; 19:2, s. 401-410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel type of sponge-like material for the separation of mixed oil and water liquids has been prepared by the vapour deposition of hydrophobic silanes on ultra-porous nanocellulose aerogels. To achieve this, a highly porous (> 99%) nanocellulose aerogel with high structural flexibility and robustness is first formed by freeze-drying an aqueous dispersion of the nanocellulose. The density, pore size distribution and wetting properties of the aerogel can be tuned by selecting the concentration of the nanocellulose dispersion before freeze-drying. The hydrophobic light- weight aerogels are almost instantly filled with the oil phase when selectively absorbing oil from water, with a capacity to absorb up to 45 times their own weight in oil. The oil can also be drained from the aerogel and the aerogel can then be reused for a second absorption cycle.
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