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Sökning: WFRF:(Larsson Lars) > Wågberg Lars

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  • Ansari, Farhan, et al. (författare)
  • Hierarchical wood cellulose fiber/epoxy biocomposites : Materials design of fiber porosity and nanostructure
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing. - 1359-835X. ; 74, s. 60-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Delignified chemical wood pulp fibers can be designed to have a controlled structure of cellulose fibril aggregates to serve as porous templates in biocomposites with unique properties. The potential of these fibers as reinforcement for an epoxy matrix (EP) was investigated in this work. Networks of porous wood fibers were impregnated with monomeric epoxy and cured. Microscopy images from ultramicrotomed cross sections and tensile fractured surfaces were used to study the distribution of matrix inside and around the fibers - at two different length scales. Mechanical characterization at different relative humidity showed much improved mechanical properties of biocomposites based on epoxy-impregnated fibers and they were rather insensitive to surrounding humidity. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of cellulose-fiber biocomposites were compared with those of cellulose-nanofibril (CNF) composites; strong similarities were found between the two materials. The reasons for this, some limitations and the role of specific surface area of the fiber are discussed.
  • Larsson, Per A., et al. (författare)
  • Ductile All-Cellulose Nanocomposite Films Fabricated from Core-Shell Structured Cellulose Nanofibrils
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biomacromolecules. - 1525-7797. ; 15:6, s. 2218-2223
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cellulosic materials have many desirable properties such as high mechanical strength and low oxygen permeability and will be an important component in a sustainable biomaterial-based society, but unfortunately they often lack the ductility and formability offered by petroleum-based materials. This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of nanocomposite films made of core-shell modified cellulose nanofibrils (CNEs) surrounded by a shell of ductile dialcohol cellulose, created by heterogeneous periodate oxidation followed by borohydride reduction of the native cellulose in the external parts of the individual fibrils. The oxidation with periodate selectively produces dialdehyde cellulose, and the process does not increase the charge density of the material. Yet the modified cellulose fibers could easily be homogenized to CNFs. Prior to film fabrication, the CNF was shown by atomic force microscopy to be 0.5-2 mu m long and 4-10 nm wide. The films were fabricated by filtration, and besides uniaxial tensile testing at different relative humidities, they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and oxygen permeability. The strength-at-break at 23 degrees C and 50% RH was 175 MPa, and the films could, before rupture, be strained, mainly by plastic deformation, to about 15% and 37% at 50% RH and 90% RH, respectively. This moisture plasticization was further utilized to form a demonstrator consisting of a double-curved structure with a nominal strain of 24% over the curvature. At a relative humidity of 80%, the films still acted as a good oxygen barrier, having an oxygen permeability of 5.5 mL-mu L/(m(2).24 h.kPa). These properties indicate that this new material has a potential for use as a barrier in complex-shaped structures and hence ultimately reduce the need for petroleum-based plastics.
  • Larsson, Per A., 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Ductile cellulose nanocomposite films fabricated from nanofibrillated cellulose after partial conversion to dialcohol cellulose
  • 2013
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ductile nanofibrillar nanocomposite films with a strain at break of 18%, and a tensile strength of 185 MPa, have been fabricated from nanofibrillated bleached kraft fibres partially converted to dialcohol cellulose prior to homogenisation. The conversion to dialcohol cellulose was performed by oxidation with sodium periodate to a degree of oxidation of ca. 30%, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride, and the fabricated films consequentially had one stiff cellulose phase and one flexible dialcohol cellulose phase. The liberated nanofibrils were characterised by AFM, after adsorption onto a silica surface, and imaging in tapping mode showed a blend of elementary fibrils with a width of 5 nm and inter-entangled fibril aggregates with a width of 15-20 nm. Besides good mechanical properties, the films also provided good barrier properties; at 0% RH the oxygen permeability was 2 ml·µm/(m2·d·kPa).
  • Larsson, Per A., et al. (författare)
  • Highly ductile fibres and sheets by core-shell structuring of the cellulose nanofibrils
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cellulose (London). - 0969-0239. ; 21:1, s. 323-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A greater ductility of cellulosic materials is important if they are to be used in increasingly advanced applications. This study explores the potential for using chemical core-shell structuring on the nanofibril level to alter the mechanical properties of cellulose fibres and sheets made thereof. The structuring was achieved by a selective oxidation of the cellulose C2-C3 bonds with sodium periodate, followed by a reduction of the aldehydes formed with sodium borohydride, i.e. locally transforming cellulose to dialcohol cellulose. The resulting fibres were morphologically characterised and the sheets made of these modified fibres were mechanically tested. These analyses showed a minor decrease in the degree of polymerisation, a significantly reduced cellulose crystal width and a greater ductility. At 27 % conversion of the available C2-C3 bonds, sheets could be strained 11 %, having a stress at break of about 90 MPa, and consequently a remarkable tensile energy absorption at rupture of about 9 kJ/kg, i.e. 3-4 times higher than a strong conventional paper. Zero-span tensile measurements indicated that the treatment increased the ductility not only of sheets but also of individual fibres. This suggests that the amorphous and molecularly more mobile dialcohol cellulose is located as a shell surrounding the crystalline core of the cellulose fibrils, and that, at deformations beyond the yield point, this facilitates plastic deformation both within and between individual fibres.
  • Svensson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Preparation of dry ultra-porous cellulosic fibres : Characterization and possible initial uses
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Carbohydrate Polymers. - 0144-8617. ; 92:1, s. 775-783
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dry ultra-porous cellulose fibres were obtained using a liquid exchange procedure in which water was replaced in the following order: water, methanol, acetone, and finally pentane: thereafter, the fibres were dried with Ar(g). The dry samples (of TEMPO-oxidized dissolving pulp) had a specific surface area of 130 m(2) g(-1) as measured using BET nitrogen gas adsorption. The open structure in the dry state was also revealed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. This dry open structure was used as a scaffold for in situ polymerization. Both poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(butylacrylate) were successfully used as matrix polymers for the composite material (fibre/polymer), comprising approximately 20 wt% fibres. Atomic force microscopy phase imaging indicated a nanoscale mixing of the matrix polymer and the cellulose fibril aggregates and this was also supported by mechanical testing of the prepared composite where the open fibre structure produced superior composites. The fibre/polymer composite had a significantly reduced water absorption capacity also indicating an efficient filling of the fibre structure with the matrix polymer.
  • Andersson, L., et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating pore space in macroporous ceramics with water-based porosimetry
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Ceramic Society. - 0002-7820. ; 96:6, s. 1916-1922
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We show that water-based porosimetry (WBP), a facile, simple, and nondestructive porosimetry technique, accurately evaluates both the pore size distribution and throat size distribution of sacrificially templated macroporous alumina. The pore size distribution and throat size distribution derived from the WBP evaluation in uptake (imbibition) and release (drainage) mode, respectively, were corroborated by mercury porosimetry and X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT). In contrast with mercury porosimetry, the WBP also provided information on the presence of "dead-end pores" in the macroporous alumina.
  • Bruce, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • A comparative study of covalent grafting and physical adsorption of PCL onto cellulose
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A growing concern for the environment has, in the past years, directed the research towards a bigger focus on new “greener” materials, such as cellulose-reinforced options. Cellulose is the most abundant organic raw material in the world and it is a versatile material. However, to be able to use it in applications where it is not inherently compatible, a modification is often necessary.1-3 One common method to achieve this modification is to graft polymers onto/from the cellulose chain. This can change the inherent properties of cellulose to attain new properties, such as dimensional stability and water repellency.3 In addition to this, it has been shown that polyectrolytes can be physiosorbed onto charged surfaces.4 Due to this, it is possible to physically modify cellulose by adsorbing a polymer through electrostatic interactions instead of attaching it with a covalent bond.5However, a more detailed investigation concerning differences of covalent and physical attachment of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) onto cellulose, has to the author’s best knowledge not been performed. Therefore, this project aims to compare these two techniques. Covalently bonded PCL was grafted by surface-initiated ring opening polymerization (SI-ROP) from the cellulose. For the adsorption approach, a block copolymer consisting of PCL and a shorter segment of poly(di(methylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) was made combining ROP and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The PDMAEMA-part was then quaternized, which resulted in a cationically charged chain – a polyelectrolyte. This can then be used as an electrostatic linker allowing the PDMAEMA-PCL copolymer to be adsorbed onto the negatively charged cellulose model surface. Finally, differences between the two approaches are evaluated regarding for example surface coverage and grafting/physiosorption efficiency investigated with techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM).
  • Bruce, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative study of covalent grafting and physical adsorption of PCL onto cellulose
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this work, an investigation concerning differences between covalent and physical attachment of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to a nanocellulose modell surface was conducted. For the covalent attachment, ring-opening polymerization (ROP) was performed using the “grafting-from” approach, building the polymer from the surface. For the physical attachment, a block copolymer consisting of PCL and poly(di(methylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) was made combining ROP and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The PDMAEMA-part was then quaternized, which resulted in a charged chain – a polyelectrolyte. The charges allow for the PDMAEMA-PCL copolymer to be adsorbed onto the nanocellulose modell surface. The length of the PDMAEMA-part was kept constant (DP=20), and the length of PCL was varied (DP=150, 300, 600) for both the covalently attached polymer and for the copolymer. Finally, differences between the two approaches were evaluated regarding for example surface coverage and grafting/physiosorption efficiency investigated with techniques such as atomic force microscopy.
  • Bruce, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Preparation and evaluation of a block copolymer compatibilizer for biocomposite applications
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, the concept of using a free polymer as a compatibilzer in biocomposite applications has been evaluated with focus on the polymer poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), commonly used in conventional grafting onto/from cellulose. A block copolymer consisting of PCL and a shorter segment of poly(di(methylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) was made combining ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The length of the PDMAEMA-part was kept constant, and the PCL-part was varied in three different lengths, yielding three separate block copolymers. As a final step, the PDMAEMA-part was quaternized, which resulted in cationically charged chains –polyelectrolytes. The charged part could then be used as an electrostatic linker allowing the PDMAEMA-PCL copolymer to be adsorbed onto negatively charged cellulose model surfaces. Finally, these cellulose model surfaces were evaluated regarding for example amount of polymer adsorbed and hydrophobic character, investigated with techniques such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and contact angle measurements.
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