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Sökning: WFRF:(Leboyer M) > (2005-2009)

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1.
  • Szatmari, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 39:3, s. 319-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are common, heritable neurodevelopmental conditions. The genetic architecture of ASDs is complex, requiring large samples to overcome heterogeneity. Here we broaden coverage and sample size relative to other studies of ASDs by using Affymetrix 10K SNP arrays and 1,168 families with at least two affected individuals, performing the largest linkage scan to date while also analyzing copy number variation in these families. Linkage and copy number variation analyses implicate chromosome 11p12-p13 and neurexins, respectively, among other candidate loci. Neurexins team with previously implicated neuroligins for glutamatergic synaptogenesis, highlighting glutamate-related genes as promising candidates for contributing to ASDs.
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2.
  • Henningsson, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Possible association between the androgen receptor gene and autism spectrum disorder.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530. ; 34:5, s. 752-761
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism is a highly heritable disorder but the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. The higher prevalence of autism in men than in women, in conjunction with a number of other observations, has led to the suggestion that prenatal brain exposure to androgens may be of importance for the development of this condition. Prompted by this hypothesis, we investigated the potential influence of variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene on the susceptibility for autism. To this end, 267 subjects with autism spectrum disorder and 617 controls were genotyped for three polymorphisms in exon I of the AR gene: the CAG repeat, the GGN repeat and the rs6152 SNP. In addition, parents and affected siblings were genotyped for 118 and 32 of the cases, respectively. Case-control comparisons revealed higher prevalence of short CAG alleles as well as of the A allele of the rs6152 SNP in female cases than in controls, but revealed no significant differences with respect to the GGN repeat. Analysis of the 118 families using transmission disequilibrium test, on the other hand, suggested an association with the GGN polymorphism, the rare 20-repeat allele being undertransmitted to male cases and the 23-repeat allele being overtransmitted to female cases. Sequencing of the AR gene in 46 patients revealed no mutations or rare variants. The results tend some support for an influence of the studied polymorphisms on the susceptibility for autism, but argue against the possibility that mutations in the AR gene are common in subjects with this condition. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Durand, Christelle M, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in the gene encoding the synaptic scaffolding protein SHANK3 are associated with autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 39:1, s. 25-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SHANK3 (also known as ProSAP2) regulates the structural organization of dendritic spines and is a binding partner of neuroligins; genes encoding neuroligins are mutated in autism and Asperger syndrome. Here, we report that a mutation of a single copy of SHANK3 on chromosome 22q13 can result in language and/or social communication disorders. These mutations concern only a small number of individuals, but they shed light on one gene dosage-sensitive synaptic pathway that is involved in autism spectrum disorders.
4.
  • Buxbaum, Joseph D, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation analysis of the NSD1 gene in patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - 1471-2350. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by macrocephaly, advanced bone age, characteristic facial features, and learning disabilities, caused by mutations or deletions of the NSD1 gene, located at 5q35. Sotos syndrome has been described in a number of patients with autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that NSD1 could be involved in other cases of autism and macrocephaly. Methods: We screened the NSD1 gene for mutations and deletions in 88 patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly (head circumference 2 standard deviations or more above the mean). Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions. Dosage analysis of NSD1 was carried out using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results: We identified three missense variants (R604L, S822C and E1499G) in one patient each, but none is within a functional domain. In addition, segregation analysis showed that all variants were inherited from healthy parents and in two cases were also present in unaffected siblings, indicating that they are probably nonpathogenic. No partial or whole gene deletions/duplications were observed. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Sotos syndrome is a rare cause of autism spectrum disorders and that screening for NSD1 mutations and deletions in patients with autism and macrocephaly is not warranted in the absence of other features of Sotos syndrome.
5.
  • Buxbaum, Joseph D, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation screening of the PTEN gene in patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. - 1552-4841. ; 144B:4, s. 484-491
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the PTEN gene are associated with a broad spectrum of disorders, including Cowden syndrome (CS), Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, Proteus syndrome, and Lhermitte-Duclos disease. In addition, PTEN mutations have been described in a few patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and macrocephaly. In this study, we screened the PTEN gene for mutations and deletions in 88 patients with ASDs and macrocephaly (defined as >or=2 SD above the mean). Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions, as well as the promoter region. Dosage analysis of PTEN was carried out using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). No partial or whole gene deletions were observed. We identified a de novo missense mutation (D326N) in a highly conserved amino acid in a 5-year-old boy with autism, mental retardation, language delay, extreme macrocephaly (+9.6 SD) and polydactyly of both feet. Polydactyly has previously been described in two patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease and CS and is thus likely to be a rare sign of PTEN mutations. Our findings suggest that PTEN mutations are a relatively infrequent cause of ASDs with macrocephaly. Screening of PTEN mutations is warranted in patients with autism and pronounced macrocephaly, even in the absence of other features of PTEN-related tumor syndromes.
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6.
  • Delorme, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • No human tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene R441H mutation in a large cohort of psychiatric patients and control subjects.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry. - 0006-3223. ; 60:2, s. 202-203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It was recently reported that a rare functional variant, R441H, in the human tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene (hTPH2) could represent an important risk factor for unipolar major depression (UP) since it was originally found in 10% of UP patients (vs. 1.4% in control subjects). METHODS: We explored the occurrence of this variation in patients with affective disorders (n = 646), autism spectrum disorders (n = 224), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (n = 201); in healthy volunteers with no psychiatric disorders (n = 246); and in an ethnic panel of control individuals from North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, China, and Sweden (n = 277). RESULTS: Surprisingly, we did not observe the R441H variant in any of the individuals screened (3188 independent chromosomes). CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not confirm the role of the R441H mutation of the hTPH2 gene in the susceptibility to UP. The absence of the variant from a large cohort of psychiatric patients and control subjects suggests that the findings reported in the original study could be due to a genotyping error or to stratification of the initial population reported. Additional data by other groups should contribute to the clarification of the discrepancy between our results and those previous published.
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8.
  • Durand, Christelle M, et al. (författare)
  • Expression and genetic variability of PCDH11Y, a gene specific to Homo sapiens and candidate for susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics : The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. - 1552-4841. ; 141:1, s. 67-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Synaptogenesis, the formation of functional synapses, is a crucial step for the development of the central nervous system. Among the genes involved in this process are cell adhesion molecules, such as protocadherins and neuroligins, which are essential factors for the identification of the appropriate partner cell and the formation of synapses. In this work, we studied the expression and the genetic variability of two closely related members of the protocadherin family PCDH11X/Y, located on the X and the Y chromosome, respectively. PCDH11Y is one of the rare genes specific to the hominoid lineage, being absent in other primates. Expression analysis indicated that transcripts of the PCDH11X/Y genes are mainly detected in the cortex of the human brain. Mutation screening of 30 individuals with autism identified two PCDH11Y polymorphic amino acid changes, F885V and K980N. These variations are in complete association, appeared during human evolution approximately 40,000 years ago and represent informative polymorphisms to study Y chromosome variability in populations. We studied the frequency of these variants in males with autism spectrum disorders (n = 110), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 61), bipolar disorder (n = 61), obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 51), or schizophrenia (n = 61) and observed no significant differences when compared to ethnically-matched control populations. These findings do not support the role of PCDH11Y, or more generally of a frequent specific Y chromosome, in the susceptibility to these neuropsychiatric disorders.
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9.
  • Gong, Xiaohong, et al. (författare)
  • An investigation of ribosomal protein L10 gene in autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - 1471-2350. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are severe neurodevelopmental disorders with the male:female ratio of 4:1, implying the contribution of X chromosome genetic factors to the susceptibility of ASD. The ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10) gene, located on chromosome Xq28, codes for a key protein in assembling large ribosomal subunit and protein synthesis. Two non-synonymous mutations of RPL10, L206M and H213Q, were identified in four boys with ASD. Moreover, functional studies of mutant RPL10 in yeast exhibited aberrant ribosomal profiles. These results provided a novel aspect of disease mechanisms for autism – aberrant processes of ribosome biosynthesis and translation. To confirm these initial findings, we re-sequenced RPL10 exons and quantified mRNA transcript level of RPL10 in our samples. Methods: 141 individuals with ASD were recruited in this study. All RPL10 exons and flanking junctions were sequenced. Furthermore, mRNA transcript level of RPL10 was quantified in B lymphoblastoid cell lines (BLCL) of 48 patients and 27 controls using the method of SYBR Green quantitative PCR. Two sets of primer pairs were used to quantify the mRNA expression level of RPL10: RPL10-A and RPL10-B. Results: No non-synonymous mutations were detected in our cohort. Male controls showed similar transcript level of RPL10 compared with female controls (RPL10-A, U = 81, P = 0.7; RPL10-B, U = 61.5, P = 0.2). We did not observe any significant difference in RPL10 transcript levels between cases and controls (RPL10-A, U = 531, P = 0.2; RPL10-B, U = 607.5, P = 0.7). Conclusion: Our results suggest that RPL10 has no major effect on the susceptibility to ASD.
10.
  • Gong, Ziaohong, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of X chromosome inactivation in autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. - 1552-485X. ; 147B:6, s. 830-835
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex genetic disorders more frequently observed in males. Skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is observed in heterozygous females carrying gene mutations involved in several X-linked syndromes. In this study, we aimed to estimate the role of X-linked genes in ASD susceptibility by ascertaining the XCI pattern in a sample of 543 informative mothers of children with ASD and in a sample of 163 affected girls. The XCI pattern was also determined in two control groups (144 adult females and 40 young females) with a similar age distribution to the mothers sample and affected girls sample, respectively. We observed no significant excess of skewed XCI in families with ASD. Interestingly, two mothers and one girl carrying known mutations in X-linked genes (NLGN3, ATRX, MECP2) showed highly skewed XCI, suggesting that ascertainment of XCI could reveal families with X-linked mutations. Linkage analysis was carried out in the subgroup of multiplex families with skewed XCI (80:20) and a modest increased allele sharing was obtained in the Xq27-Xq28 region, with a peak Z-score of 1.75 close to rs719489. In summary, our results suggest that there is no major X-linked gene subject to XCI and expressed in blood cells conferring susceptibility to ASD. However, the possibility that rare mutations in X-linked genes could contribute to ASD cannot be excluded. We propose that the XCI profile could be a useful criteria to prioritize families for mutation screening of X-linked candidate genes.
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