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Sökning: WFRF:(Lee Andrew) > (2010-2014)

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  • Padmanabhan, Sandosh, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure Extremes Identifies Variant near UMOD Associated with Hypertension
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404. ; 6:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypertension is a heritable and major contributor to the global burden of disease. The sum of rare and common genetic variants robustly identified so far explain only 1%-2% of the population variation in BP and hypertension. This suggests the existence of more undiscovered common variants. We conducted a genome-wide association study in 1,621 hypertensive cases and 1,699 controls and follow-up validation analyses in 19,845 cases and 16,541 controls using an extreme case-control design. We identified a locus on chromosome 16 in the 59 region of Uromodulin (UMOD; rs13333226, combined P value of 3.6x10(-11)). The minor G allele is associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR [95% CI]: 0.87 [0.84-0.91]), reduced urinary uromodulin excretion, better renal function; and each copy of the G allele is associated with a 7.7% reduction in risk of CVD events after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status (H.R. = 0.923, 95% CI 0.860-0.991; p = 0.027). In a subset of 13,446 individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements, we show that rs13333226 is independently associated with hypertension (unadjusted for eGFR: 0.89 [0.83-0.96], p = 0.004; after eGFR adjustment: 0.89 [0.83-0.96], p = 0.003). In clinical functional studies, we also consistently show the minor G allele is associated with lower urinary uromodulin excretion. The exclusive expression of uromodulin in the thick portion of the ascending limb of Henle suggests a putative role of this variant in hypertension through an effect on sodium homeostasis. The newly discovered UMOD locus for hypertension has the potential to give new insights into the role of uromodulin in BP regulation and to identify novel drugable targets for reducing cardiovascular risk.
  • Peluso, Michael J, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid and Neuroimaging Biomarker Abnormalities Suggest Early Neurological Injury in a Subset of Individuals During Primary HIV Infection.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: The Journal of infectious diseases. - 1537-6613. ; 207:11, s. 1703-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging abnormalities demonstrate neuronal injury during chronic AIDS, but data on these biomarkers during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is limited. Methods. We compared CSF concentrations of neurofilament light chain, t-tau, p-tau, amyloid precursor proteins, and amyloid-beta 42 in 92 subjects with primary HIV infection and 25 controls. We examined relationships with disease progression and neuroinflammation, neuropsychological testing, and proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-based metabolites. Results. Neurofilament light chain was elevated in primary HIV infection compared with controls (P = .0004) and correlated with CSF neopterin (r = 0.38; P = .0005), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (r = 0.39; P = .002), white blood cells (r = 0.32; P = .004), protein (r = 0.59; P < .0001), and CSF/plasma albumin ratio (r = 0.60; P < .0001). Neurofilament light chain correlated with decreased N-acteylaspartate/creatine and glutamate/creatine in the anterior cingulate (r = -0.35, P = .02; r = -0.40, P = .009, respectively), frontal white matter (r = -0.43, P = .003; r = -0.30, P = .048, respectively), and parietal gray matter (r = -0.43, P = .003; r = -0.47, P = .001, respectively). Beta-amyloid was elevated in the primary infection group (P = .0005) and correlated with time infected (r = 0.34; P = .003). Neither marker correlated with neuropsychological abnormalities. T-tau and soluble amyloid precursor proteins did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Elevated neurofilament light chain and its correlation with MRS-based metabolites suggest early neuronal injury in a subset of participants with primary HIV infection through mechanisms involving central nervous system inflammation.
  • Plumridge, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • The decarboxylation of the weak-acid preservative, sorbic acid, is encoded by linked genes in Aspergillus spp.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Fungal Genetics and Biology. - 1087-1845 .- 1096-0937. ; 47:8, s. 683-692
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ability to resist anti-microbial compounds is of key evolutionary benefit to microorganisms. Aspergillus has previously been shown to require the activity of a phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase (encoded by padA1) for the decarboxylation of the weak-acid preservative sorbic acid (2,4-hexadienoic acid) to 1,3-pentadiene. It is now shown that this decarboxylation process also requires the activity of a putative 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid) decarboxylase, encoded by a gene termed ohbA1, and a putative transcription factor, sorbic acid decarboxylase regulator, encoded by sdrA. The padA1, ohbA1 and sdrA genes are in close proximity to each other on chromosome 6 in the A. niger genome, and further bioinformatic analysis revealed conserved synteny at this locus in several Aspergillus species and other ascomycete fungi indicating clustering of metabolic function. This cluster is absent from the genomes of A. fumigatus and A. clavatus and, as a consequence, neither species is capable of decarboxylating sorbic acid. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Richards, Stephen, et al. (författare)
  • Genome sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS Biology. - Public Library of Science. - 1544-9173. ; 8:2, s. 1-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for post-genomic studies of fundamental biological questions and applied agricultural problems.
  • Rietveld, Cornelius A., et al. (författare)
  • GWAS of 126,559 Individuals Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with Educational Attainment
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 340:6139, s. 1467-1471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R-2 approximate to 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for approximate to 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.
  • Schunkert, Heribert, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 43:4, s. 153-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease (CAD) comprising 22,233 individuals with CAD (cases) and 64,762 controls of European descent followed by genotyping of top association signals in 56,682 additional individuals. This analysis identified 13 loci newly associated with CAD at P < 5 x 10(-8) and confirmed the association of 10 of 12 previously reported CAD loci. The 13 new loci showed risk allele frequencies ranging from 0.13 to 0.91 and were associated with a 6% to 17% increase in the risk of CAD per allele. Notably, only three of the new loci showed significant association with traditional CAD risk factors and the majority lie in gene regions not previously implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD. Finally, five of the new CAD risk loci appear to have pleiotropic effects, showing strong association with various other human diseases or traits.
  • Short, Tim, et al. (författare)
  • Manufacturing, sustainability, ecodesign and risk : Lessons learned from a study of Swedish and English companies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production. - Elsevier. - 0959-6526. ; 37, s. 342-352
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous research suggests that, despite a desire to introduce environmental concerns into New Product Design, many companies in the northwest of England have not done so. In order to understand more about why companies do or do not take on sustainability methodologies, an entirely new and rigorous approach was taken. This paper therefore presents the results of a questionnaire investigating the up-take of Eco/Sustainable Design in manufacturing companies in Sweden - a country that might be considered more environmentally progressive than the UK - and discusses them alongside the results of an identical questionnaire in the UK. The results are presented in the context of risk and risk aversion/management - in particular the risk associated with taking on board Design for Sustainability as a design method or a company strategy. It is found that there is no clear "winner" in sustainability between UK and Swedish engineering companies; there is encouraging news in both countries, with a desire to practice sustainability, but some that is not so good with the number of companies that actually implement relevant methodologies. It is apparent that there are still hindrances and perceived risks preventing companies taking sustainability fully on board, despite the recognition that sustainability is a "good thing"; the importance of the implementation of sustainability has not yet been fully grasped by industry and by those with the responsibility required to effect any changes.
  • Soler, Lucile, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative physical maps derived from BAC end sequences of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - 1471-2164 .- 1471-2164. ; 11, s. 636
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:The Nile tilapia is the second most important fish in aquaculture. It is an excellent laboratory model, and is closely related to the African lake cichlids famous for their rapid rates of speciation. A suite of genomic resources has been developed for this species, including genetic maps and ESTs. Here we analyze BAC end-sequences to develop comparative physical maps, and estimate the number of genome rearrangements, between tilapia and other model fish species.RESULTS:We obtained sequence from one or both ends of 106,259 tilapia BACs. BLAST analysis against the genome assemblies of stickleback, medaka and pufferfish allowed identification of homologies for approximately 25,000 BACs for each species. We calculate that rearrangement breakpoints between tilapia and these species occur about every 3 Mb across the genome. Analysis of 35,000 clones previously assembled into contigs by restriction fingerprints allowed identification of longer-range syntenies.CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that chromosomal evolution in recent teleosts is dominated by alternate loss of gene duplicates, and by intra-chromosomal rearrangements (~one per million years). These physical maps are a useful resource for comparative positional cloning of traits in cichlid fishes. The paired BAC end sequences from these clones will be an important resource for scaffolding forthcoming shotgun sequence assemblies of the tilapia genome.
  • Stevens, Kristen N., et al. (författare)
  • Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci Are Associated with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 1538-7445. ; 71:19, s. 6240-6249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triple-negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiologic factors that promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome-wide association studies display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by the status of estrogen and progesterone receptors. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple-negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single-nucleotide polymorphisms, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.1), and rs8100241 (19p13.1), significantly associated with the risk of triple-negative breast cancer. Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer Res; 71(19); 6240-9. (C)2011 AACR.
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