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  • Lind, Monica, et al. (författare)
  • Estrogen supplementation modulates effects of the endocrine disrupting pollutant PCB126 in rat bone and uterus : diverging effects in ovariectomized and intact animals.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Toxicology. - 0300-483X .- 1879-3185. ; 199:2-3, s. 129-136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aims of the present study are to compare effects of estrogen depletion (OVX) and estradiol (E2) supplementation on the tissue effects of exposure to the endocrine disrupting organochlorine 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). For this purpose two highly estrogen-dependent tissues, bone and uterus, were studied. Forty rats exposed to PCB126 (ip) for 3 months (total dose 384 microg/kg body weight (bw)) were randomized in to OVX/sham operation or E2 supplementation (ip, 23 microg/kg, 3 days weekly) per vehicle (corn oil) groups in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Sham operated rats were treated with vehicle, PCB or PCB plus E2 (sham, sham + PCB and sham + PCB + E2, n=10 per group) whereas ovariectomized were treated with vehicle, PCB or PCB plus E2(OVX, OVX + PCB and OVX + PCB + E2, n=10 per group). As control groups served OVX or sham, and OVX + E2 (n=10 in each group). In OVX rats PCB126 + E2 treatment increased trabecular bone volume (TBV) (P<0.01), whilst the opposite was found in sham-operated rats (P<0.01). In OVX animals exposed to PCB126, E2 supplementation decreased the uterine weight and increased the uterine ERbeta mRNA level, whilst no difference was found between the PCB126 and PCB126 + E2 exposed groups in the sham-operated animals. In conclusion, estrogen modulates PCB126 induced effects on trabecular bone, as well as several uterine parameters. These results further support an important role of estrogen on the toxic effects of PCB126 on bone and uterus.
  • Lind, Monica, et al. (författare)
  • The dioxin-like pollutant PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) affects risk factors for cardiovascular disease in female rats
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Toxicology Letters. - 0378-4274 .- 1879-3169. ; 150:3, s. 293-299
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorines might induce cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. Some of these organochlorines, such as dioxins and some dioxin-like PCBs, have been characterised as anti-estrogenic due to their inhibition of estrogenic-induced responses. In the present pilot study, 40 female rats were subjected to either exposure to the dioxin-like 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) or vehicle, as well as ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation in a 2 x 2 factorial design over 12 weeks to explore potential interactions between estrogen status and PCB 126 exposure on cardiovascular risk factors. PCB 126 increased heart weight and serum cholesterol levels in both groups. PCB 126 increased blood pressure in the sham-operated animals only. In conclusion, PCB 126 exposure in female rats resulted in effects on cardiovascular risk factors, such as serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and heart weight. Of these effects of PCB 126, the increase in blood pressure was dependent on estrogen status.
  • Lind, Monica, et al. (författare)
  • Torsional testing and peripheral quantitative computed tomography in rat humerus
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Bone. - 8756-3282 .- 1873-2763. ; 29:3, s. 265-270
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is a noninvasive method mainly used to evaluate the densitometric and geometric properties of bone. In the present study, we evaluate the different variables provided by pQCT examination and their ability to predict the mechanical strength properties of the rat humerus. Humeri from 68 female rats were utilized. These humeri represented bone with a wide range of mechanical and densitometric properties as well as geometric dimensions. Various characteristics, such as volumetric cortical density, total mineral content, cortical thickness, total cross-sectional area, cortical area, and polar strength strain index (SSI), were measured by pQCT. The reproducibility of these measurements was good, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 0.8% to 4.9%. Bone composition (e.g., ash weight, water content, and inorganic content) and bone dimensions (e.g., length, waist, and volume) were also determined. The mechanical properties (maximum torque, torsion at failure, and stiffness) were measured by torsional testing. Stepwise multiple linear regression was performed to identify the best explanatory variables for each mechanical parameter. Total cross-sectional area and polar SSI were equally well correlated to stiffness (r = 0.57, p < 0.001), whereas ash weight was superior to the pQCT variables to explain maximum torque (r = 0.42, p < 0.001). No other independent pQCT variable entered the two models in the stepwise regression analysis. It was found to be feasible to measure properties of the rat humerus with pQCT. Cross-sectional area and the polar SSI were shown to be the best explanatory variables for stiffness, whereas ash weight was the best predictor for maximum torque.
  • Dunder, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of a scoring scheme, including proinsulin and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, for the risk of acute coronary events in middle-aged men : Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM)
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 148:4, s. 596-601
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In recent years, the importance of circulating levels of proinsulin and apolipoproteins as risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI) has been highlighted. The aims of the current study were to investigate whether introduction of these new markers of coronary risk could improve the performance of a risk prediction score and to compare this new score with traditional scoring schemes, such as the Framingham Study and the Prospective Cardiovascular Munster (PROCAM) Study schemes.METHODS: From 1970 to 1973 all 50-year-old men in Uppsala, Sweden, were invited to participate in a health survey aimed at identifying risk factors for cardiovascular disease (the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men [ULSAM] cohort). The current study investigated metabolic characteristics at baseline and the incidence of fatal and nonfatal MI (n = 251) during 28.7 years of follow-up in 1108 men who were free of coronary heart disease at baseline.RESULTS: The risk prediction score was derived from one half of the population sample from the ULSAM cohort and included systolic blood pressure, smoking, family history of MI, serum proinsulin, and the ratio between apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A1. The score was highly predictive for future MI (hazard ratio, 1.77 for a 1 SD increase; 95% CI, 1.49 to 2.10, P <.0001) in the other half of the population that was not used for generating the score. The ULSAM score performed slightly better than the Framingham and PROCAM scores (evaluated as areas under the receiver operating curves; Framingham, 61%; PROCAM, 63%; ULSAM, 66%; P =.08).CONCLUSIONS: A risk prediction score for MI including proinsulin and the ratio between apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A1 was developed in middle-aged men. This score was highly predictive for future fatal and nonfatal MI and proved to be at least as good as the Framingham and the PROCAM scores, being based on traditional risk factors.
  • Engström, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Blood pressure increase and incidence of hypertension in relation to inflammation-sensitive plasma proteins.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - Lippincott Williams Wilkins Hagerstown, MD. - 1524-4636. ; 22:12, s. 2054-2058
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective— The reasons for the relationship between inflammation-sensitive plasma proteins (ISPs) and incidence of cardiovascular diseases are poorly understood. This study explored the hypothesis that ISPs are associated with future hypertension and age-related blood pressure increase. Method and Results— Blood pressure and plasma levels of fibrinogen, {alpha}1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and orosomucoid were determined in 2262 healthy men aged 35 to 50 years, initially without treatment for hypertension. The cohort was re-examined after 15.7 (±2.2) years. Incidence of hypertension and blood pressure increase was studied in relation to number of elevated proteins (ie, in the top quartile) at baseline. Among men without treatment for hypertension at follow-up, mean (±SD) increase in systolic blood pressure was 18.8±17, 19.2±17, 19.3±17, and 22.1±18 mm Hg, respectively, for men with 0, 1, 2, and >=3 elevated proteins (P for trend=0.02, adjusted for confounders). The corresponding values for pulse pressure increase was 15.5±14, 15.8±14, 17.4±14, and 17.8±15 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.02). Incidence of hypertension (>=160/95 mm Hg or treatment) and future blood pressure treatment showed similar associations with ISPs. Increase in diastolic blood pressure showed no association with ISPs. Conclusions— Plasma levels of ISPs are associated with a future increase in blood pressure. This could contribute to the relationship between ISP levels and cardiovascular disease.
  • Engström, Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammation-sensitive plasma proteins and incidence of myocardial infarction in men with low cardiovascular risk.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - Lippincott Williams Wilkins Hagerstown, MD. - 1524-4636. ; 23:12, s. 2247-2251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective— Myocardial infarction (MI) is sometimes experienced by individuals without any traditional risk factor. This prospective study explored whether incidence of MI in nonsmoking, nondiabetic men with normal blood pressure and serum lipids is related to inflammation-sensitive plasma proteins (ISPs). Methods and Results— Five ISPs ({alpha}1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, orosomucoid) were analyzed in 6075 men, 47±3.6 years old. A low-risk group (no traditional risk factor, n=1108) and a high-risk group (>=2 major risk factors, n=1011) were defined. Incidence of MI (n=227) was monitored over 18.1±4.3 years of follow-up. In the low-risk group, the age-adjusted relative risks (RRs) were 1.00 (reference), 1.9 (95% CI, 0.8 to 4.2), 1.8 (95% CI, 0.6 to 5.4), and 2.9 (95% CI, 1.05 to 8.1), respectively, for men with 0, 1, 2 and >=3 ISPs in the top quartile (trend: P=0.03). In this group, the increased risk was observed only after >=10 years of follow-up. In the high-risk group, the age-adjusted RRs were 1.00, 1.4 (95% CI, 0.9 to 2.2), 1.9 (95% CI, 1.2 to 3.1), and 2.0 (95% CI, 1.3 to 3.1), respectively, for men with 0, 1, 2, and >=3 ISPs in the top quartile (trend: P=0.0004). Conclusion— Incidence of MI in nonsmoking, nondiabetic men with normal blood pressure and lipids was related to ISPs. The causes for this relationship remain to be explored.
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