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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Loukopoulos Peter 1975 ) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Loukopoulos Peter 1975 )

  • Resultat 1-10 av 20
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1.
  • Gärling, Tommy, 1941-, et al. (författare)
  • An experimental simulation of adaptations to increased car-use costs
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: O. Svenson (Chair), Judgment and decision making in transportation. Symposium convened at the 21th research conference on subjective probability, utility and decision making (SPUDM21) Warsaw,Poland.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)
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2.
  • Gärling, Tommy, 1941-, et al. (författare)
  • Car user responses to travel demand management measures: Goal setting and choice of adaptation alternatives
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Transportation Research D. ; :9, s. 263-280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Travel demand management measures can be used to encourage car users to set car-use reduction goals when experiencing impairments in travel options. In forming plans to reduce car-use contingent on such goals, car users consider a range of adaptation alternatives including more efficient car use, suppressing trips, and switching travel mode. These adaptation alternatives, it may be argued, are implemented sequentially over time according to a cost-minimisation principle. A focus group study was conducted gauging the creativity of car-using households when contemplating adaptation alternatives, followed by an Internet-based questionnaire study in an attempt to obtain quantitative estimates of the size of car-use reduction goals and frequency of implementation of adaptation alternatives. The data revealed that the effects of travel demand management measures and trip purpose on the setting of car-use reduction goals were small. While the cost-minimisation principle seemed to dictate stated choices of adaptation alternatives, further research needs to examine the ways in which the principle must be qualified.
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3.
  • Gärling, Tommy, 1941-, et al. (författare)
  • Choice of driving versus walking related to cognitive distance
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Applied spatial cognition: From research to cognitive technology / edited by Gary L. Allen. - Mahwah, N.J. ; London : Lawrence Erlbaum. - 0-8058-5299-9 ; s. 3
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Driving a private automobile is frequently chosen at distances that are within walking distance. Followed by a review of previous research on driving choice as well as related research on spatial cognition, this chapter focuses on the role played by cognitive distance for choices between driving and walking, The results of an internet survey are presented showing that choices of driving over walking increases with objective distance according to a concave power function similar to the way cognitive distance is related to objective distance. Suggestions are made for how urban planning supported by information technology may suppress driving at short distances
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4.
  • Gärling, Tommy, 1941-, et al. (författare)
  • Economic and psychological determinants of car ownership and use
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Cambridge handbook of psychology and economic behaviour. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. ; s. 383-405
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The chapter reviews research on determinants of car ownership and use. After a description of historical trends, the chapter focus on economic, instrumental and psychological determinants of car ownership and use. A final part describes soft and hard policy measures for reducing car use.
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5.
  • Gärling, Tommy, 1941-, et al. (författare)
  • Pricing in road transport: Multidisciplinary perspectives.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Verhoef, E., Bliemer, M., Steg, L. & Van Wee, B. (Eds.), Pricing in road transport: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.. - England, Cheltenham : Edward Elgar.. - 9781845428600 ; s. 193-208
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The chapter discusses different measures of public attitude to pricing of road transport with focus on private car use. Empirical data from the Stockholm road pricing field trial are used to estimate models of determinants of privat car users’ attitudes to the field trial.
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6.
  • Gärling, Tommy, 1941-, et al. (författare)
  • Spill-over effects in response to intermittent charges of car use
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Paper presented in J. Schade & L. Steg (Conveners), Effectiveness and acceptability of transport pricing. Symposium conducted at the 3rd international conference on traffic & transport psychology, University of Nottingham, UK.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A system of charging car use may be more acceptable if the charges are intermittent, for instance, charging every car user one day a week rather than every day. In this research we raise the complementary question of whether such a system of intermittent charges can be equally effective. In an experimental simulation we show that it may in fact be more effective. The reason is that on no-charge days many car users continue to use the slower travel mode, thereby (in our simulation) decreasing travel times for all. Activating norms of reciprocation or fairness, or inducing feelings of empathy for those who suffer are proposed as alternative explanations. The results of additional studies seem to favor the last one
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7.
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8.
  • Loukopoulos, Peter, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • A cost-minimization principle of adaptation of private car use in response to road pricing schemes.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Jensen-Butler, C., Larsen, M., Madsen, B., Nielsen, O. A., & Sloth, B. (Eds.), Road pricing, the economy, and the environment. - Springer. - 9783540771494
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this chapter, a theoretical framework is proposed with the aim of understanding reduction or changes in private car use in response to road pricing. It is argued that economic disincentives may activate car-use reduction or change goals in individuals and households. However, for car-use reduction or change goals to be implemented, other travel demand management measures are needed that make alternative travel options attractive. A review and classification of these other measures is provided of these other measures followed by an assessment of their potential effectiveness in this respect.
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9.
  • Loukopoulos, Peter, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Are car users too lazy to walk? The relation of distance thresholds for driving to the perceived effort of walking.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Paper presented at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, USA.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present study tested the hypothesis that frequent driving makes people averse to exerting physical effort through walking. In support of the hypothesis, the decrease in distance thresholds for driving associated with an increase in driving frequency was partially mediated by a measure of perceived exertion. Pol-icy implications of the obtained results are discussed with the suggestion being made that potentially effective means by which to decrease the frequency of short automobile trips may be through the use of land-use planning strategies and of de-marketing strategies for car use
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10.
  • Loukopoulos, Peter, 1975- (författare)
  • Future urban sustainable mobility - Implementing and understanding the impacts of policies designed to reduce private automobile usage
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The historically recent growth in interest in policies designed to reduce private automobile usage, policies coming under the rubric of travel demand management (TDM), is offset by a paucity of systematic research concerning the procedures by which to define and implement such TDM policies or measures, the consequences of such TDM measures and the nature of the ensuing adaptation process occurring upon implementation of any TDM measure. The present thesis’ conceptual framework for understanding the effects of TDM measures extends and complements previous work in the transportation literature by drawing on psychological theories of goal setting and adaptation. The framework views travel choices as being determined by bundles of attributes characterising travel options and by goals and implementation intentions formed over time in response to evaluations of the psychological, generalised costs of current travel. Study I utilised travel diary data to demonstrate that the specific instantiation of a TDM measure (i.e., its spatial and temporal parameters) is critical to the understanding of the ways in which the travel options of various sociodemographic groups for various trip purposes are altered. Taken together, Studies II and III, which utilised focus groups and Internet-based surveys, revealed that people tend to minimise any reductions to their car use wherever possible, with any reductions being achieved in a manner minimising the psychological costs that do occur. That is, evidence consistent with a cost-minimisation principle of adaptation was obtained. Study IV demonstrated that the implementation of long-term TDM measures, assumed to have a bearing on the mobility options and adaptation alternatives available to people, is well suited to participatory planning methods involving the evaluation of future scenarios that are the result of careful analysis of present trends and plausible future developments. The methods examined are a means by which to better project potential and expected futures, and a means by which to systematically understand and communicate preferences for these futures, with reference to both scientific and non-scientific knowledge bases. In conclusion, this research presents some tentative, initial steps towards the greater theoretical understanding of the nature of TDM measures, the changes they effect, the citizens they affect and the principles underscoring citizens’ adaptation process to such TDM measures, with clear and definite practical implications concerning which things to do, why and how.
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