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Sökning: WFRF:(Ludvigsson M. L.) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Sharma, S., et al. (författare)
  • Human Sera Collected between 1979 and 2010 Possess Blocking-Antibody Titers to Pandemic GII.4 Noroviruses Isolated over Three Decades
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Virology. - AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY. - 0022-538X. ; 91:14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The emergence of pandemic GII.4 norovirus (NoV) strains has been proposed to occur due to changes in receptor usage and thereby to lead to immune evasion. To address this hypothesis, we measured the ability of human sera collected between 1979 and 2010 to block glycan binding of four pandemic GII. 4 noroviruses isolated in the last 4 decades. In total, 268 sera were investigated for 50% blocking titer (BT50) values of virus-like particles (VLPs) against pig gastric mucin (PGM) using 4 VLPs that represent different GII. 4 norovirus variants identified between 1987 and 2012. Pre- and postpandemic sera (sera collected before and after isolation of the reference NoV strain) efficiently prevented binding of VLP strains MD145 (1987), Grimsby (1995), and Houston (2002), but not the Sydney (2012) strain, to PGM. No statistically significant difference in virus-blocking titers was observed between pre- and postpandemic sera. Moreover, paired sera showed that blocking titers of amp;gt;= 160 were maintained over a 6-year period against MD145, Grimsby, and Houston VLPs. Significantly higher serum blocking titers (geometric mean titer [GMT], 1,704) were found among IgA-deficient individuals than among healthy blood donors (GMT, 90.9) (P amp;lt; 0.0001). The observation that prepandemic sera possess robust blocking capacity for viruses identified decades later suggests a common attachment factor, at least until 2002. Our results indicate that serum IgG possesses antibody-blocking capacity and that blocking titers can be maintained for at least 6 years against 3 decades of pandemic GII. 4 NoV. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses (NoVs) are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in saliva and gut recognize NoV and are the proposed ligands that facilitate infection. Polymorphisms in HBGA genes, and in particular a nonsense mutation in FUT2 (G428A), result in resistance to global dominating GII. 4 NoV. The emergence of new pandemic GII. 4 strains occurs at intervals of several years and is proposed to be attributable to epochal evolution, including amino acid changes and immune evasion. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to a previous pandemic strain stimulates immunity to a pandemic strain identified decades later. We found that prepandemic sera possess robust virus-blocking capacity against viruses identified several decades later. We also show that serum lacking IgA antibodies is sufficient to block NoV VLP binding to HBGAs. This is essential, considering that 1 in every 600 Caucasian children is IgA deficient.
2.
  • Svensson, C. R., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of an air–liquid interface toxicological set-up using Cu, Pd, and Ag well-characterized nanostructured aggregates and spheres
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nanoparticle Research. - Springer. - 1388-0764. ; 18:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract: Systems for studying the toxicity of metal aggregates on the airways are normally not suited for evaluating the effects of individual particle characteristics. This study validates a set-up for toxicological studies of metal aggregates using an air–liquid interface approach. The set-up used a spark discharge generator capable of generating aerosol metal aggregate particles and sintered near spheres. The set-up also contained an exposure chamber, The Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT). The system facilitates online characterization capabilities of mass mobility, mass concentration, and number size distribution to determine the exposure. By dilution, the desired exposure level was controlled. Primary and cancerous airway cells were exposed to copper (Cu), palladium (Pd), and silver (Ag) aggregates, 50–150 nm in median diameter. The aggregates were composed of primary particles 2, respectively, were achieved. Viability was measured by WST-1 assay, cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, TNF-a, MCP) by Luminex technology. Statistically significant effects and dose response on cytokine expression were observed for SAEC cells after exposure to Cu, Pd, or Ag particles. Also, a positive dose response was observed for SAEC viability after Cu exposure. For A549 cells, statistically significant effects on viability were observed after exposure to Cu and Pd particles. The set-up produced a stable flow of aerosol particles with an exposure and dose expressed in terms of number, mass, and surface area. Exposure-related effects on the airway cellular models could be asserted. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
3.
  • Agnew, L., et al. (författare)
  • FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH WORK ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC WHIPLASH-ASSOCIATED DISORDER GRADE II-III: A CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - Foundation for Rehabilitation Information. - 1650-1977. ; 47:6, s. 546-551
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To investigate the factors related to self-perceived work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grades II-III. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Patients: A total of 166 working age patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder. Methods: A comprehensive survey collected data on work ability (using the Work Ability Index); demographic, psychosocial, personal, work- and condition-related factors. Forward, stepwise regression modelling was used to assess the factors related to work ability. Results: The proportion of patients in each work ability category were as follows: poor (12.7%); moderate (39.8%); good (38.5%); excellent (9%). Seven factors explained 65% (adjusted R-2 = 0.65, p less than 0.01) of the variance in work ability. In descending order of strength of association, these factors are: greater neck disability due to pain; reduced self-rated health status and health-related quality of life; increased frequency of concentration problems; poor workplace satisfaction; lower self-efficacy for performing daily tasks; and greater work-related stress. Conclusion: Condition-specific and psychosocial factors are associated with self-perceived work ability of individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder.
4.
  • Falla, D., et al. (författare)
  • Perceived pain extent is associated with disability, depression and self-efficacy in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pain. - WILEY-BLACKWELL. - 1090-3801. ; 20:9, s. 1490-1501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundCompletion of a pain drawing is a familiar task in those presenting with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Some people report pain almost over their entire body. Yet the reasons for larger pain extent have not been fully explored. MethodsA novel method was applied to quantify pain extent from the pain drawings of 205 individuals with chronic WAD. Pain extent was evaluated in relation to sex, age, educational level, insurance status and financial status. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to verify whether pain extent was associated with other health indicators including perceived pain and disability, health-related quality of life, pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy. ResultsPain extent was influenced by sex ((2):10.392, pamp;lt;0.001) with larger pain extent in women compared to men (7.887.66% vs. 5.406.44%). People with unsettled insurance claims ((2): 7.500, pamp;lt;0.05) and those with a worse financial situation ((2):12.223, pamp;lt;0.01) also had larger pain extent. Multiple linear regression models revealed that, when accounting for age, sex, education, insurance status, financial status and neck pain intensity, pain extent remained associated with perceived disability (pamp;lt;0.01), depression (pamp;lt;0.05) and self-efficacy (pamp;lt;0.001). ConclusionBy utilizing a novel method for pain extent quantification, this study shows that widespread pain is associated with a number of factors including perceived disability, depression and self-efficacy in individuals with chronic WAD. Widespread pain should alert the clinician to consider more specific psychological screening, particularly for depression and self-efficacy, in patients with WAD. What does this study add?Women with chronic WAD, those with unsettled insurance claims and those with poorer financial status perceive more widespread pain. When controlling for these factors, larger pain areas remain associated with perceived pain and disability, depression and self-efficacy. The pain drawing is useful to support psychological screening in people with chronic WAD.
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5.
  • Ludvigsson, J. F., et al. (författare)
  • Swedish Inflammatory Bowel Disease Register (SWIBREG)–a nationwide quality register
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5521. ; 54:9, s. 1089-1101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, inflammatory relapsing disease with increasing incidence. IBD research and long-term follow-up of patients have, however, been hampered by lack of detailed data on disease phenotype, patient-reported outcome measures, Physician Global Assessment, disease activity, and hospital-administered drugs.Aim: To review the Swedish IBD quality register (SWIBREG).Methods: Review of SWIBREG including questionnaire data from users and patients.Results: SWIBREG was launched in 2005, and as of April 2019, contains 46,400 patients with IBD (Crohn’s disease: n = 15,705, ulcerative colitis: n = 21,540, IBD unclassified and other colitis (including e.g., microscopic colitis): n = 9155). Of these IBD patients, 7778 had been diagnosed in childhood (16.8%). Earlier research has shown that combining SWIBREG and the Swedish National Patient Register (NPR) yields a positive predictive value of 100% (95%CI = 95–100%) for having a diagnosis of IBD. Moreover, out of all patients in the NPR with a diagnosis of IBD plus either IBD-related surgery or immunomodulatory/biological treatment during the past 18 months, SWIBREG covers 59.0%. SWIBREG records not only information on conventional therapies but also on biological treatment, surgery, smoking, disease activity, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), and patient-experienced measures (PREMs). Data are presented through a graphical decision support system.Conclusion: SWIBREG benefits patients with IBD, and offers an ideal opportunity for healthcare personnel and researchers to examine disease phenotype and activity, PROMs/PREMs, and hospital-administered drugs in patients with IBD. 
6.
  • Nucci, Anita M, et al. (författare)
  • Regional differences in milk and complementary feeding patterns in infants participating in an international nutritional type 1 diabetes prevention trial.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Maternal and Child Nutrition. - 1740-8695.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Differences in breastfeeding, other milk feeding and complementary feeding patterns were evaluated in infants at increased genetic risk with and without maternal type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk is an international nutritional primary prevention double-blinded randomized trial to test whether weaning to extensively hydrolyzed vs. intact cow's milk protein formula will decrease the development of T1D-associated autoantibodies and T1D. Infant diet was prospectively assessed at two visits and seven telephone interviews between birth and 8 months. Countries were grouped into seven regions: Australia, Canada, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Central Europe I, Central Europe II and the United States. Newborn infants with a first-degree relative with T1D and increased human leukocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to T1D were recruited. A lower proportion of infants born to mothers with than without T1D were breastfed until 6 months of age in all regions (range, 51% to 60% vs. 70% to 80%). Complementary feeding patterns differed more by region than by maternal T1D. In Northern Europe, a higher proportion of infants consumed vegetables and fruits daily compared with other regions. Consumption of meat was more frequent in all European regions, whereas cereal consumption was most frequent in Southern Europe, Canada and the United States. Maternal T1D status was associated with breastfeeding and other milk feeding patterns similarly across regions but was unrelated to the introduction of complementary foods. Infant feeding patterns differed significantly among regions and were largely inconsistent with current recommended guidelines.
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7.
  • Sundström, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Rationale for a Swedish cohort consortium
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. - TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 0300-9734 .- 2000-1967. ; 124:1, s. 21-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We herein outline the rationale for a Swedish cohort consortium, aiming to facilitate greater use of Swedish cohorts for world-class research. Coordination of all Swedish prospective population-based cohorts in a common infrastructure would enable more precise research findings and facilitate research on rare exposures and outcomes, leading to better utilization of study participants' data, better return of funders' investments, and higher benefit to patients and populations. We motivate the proposed infrastructure partly by lessons learned from a pilot study encompassing data from 21 cohorts. We envisage a standing Swedish cohort consortium that would drive development of epidemiological research methods and strengthen the Swedish as well as international epidemiological competence, community, and competitiveness.
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