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Sökning: WFRF:(Ludvigsson M. L.) > (2015-2019)

  • Resultat 11-20 av 31
  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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11.
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13.
  • Emilsson, L., et al. (författare)
  • Review of 103 Swedish Healthcare Quality Registries
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 277:1, s. 94-136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background and objectives: In the past two decades, an increasing number of nationwide, Swedish Healthcare Quality Registries (QRs) focusing on specific disorders have been initiated, mostly by physicians. Here, we describe the purpose, organization, variables, coverage and completeness of 103 Swedish QRs. Methods: From March to September 2013, we examined the 2012 applications of 103 QRs to the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR) and also studied the annual reports from the same QRs. After initial data abstraction, the coordinator of each QR was contacted at least twice between June and October 2013 and asked to confirm the accuracy of the data retrieved from the applications and reports. Results: About 60% of the QRs covered 80% of their target population (completeness). Data recorded in Swedish QRs include aspects of disease management (diagnosis, clinical characteristics, treatment and lead times). In addition, some QRs retrieve data on self-reported quality of life (EQ5D, SF-36 and disease-specific measures), lifestyle (smoking) and general health status (World Health Organization performance status, body mass index and blood pressure). ConclusionDetailed clinical data available in Swedish QRs complement information from government-administered registries and provide an important source not only for assessment and development of quality of care but also for research.</p>
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15.
  • Falla, D., et al. (författare)
  • Perceived pain extent is associated with disability, depression and self-efficacy in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pain. - 1090-3801 .- 1532-2149. ; 20:9, s. 1490-1501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BackgroundCompletion of a pain drawing is a familiar task in those presenting with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Some people report pain almost over their entire body. Yet the reasons for larger pain extent have not been fully explored. MethodsA novel method was applied to quantify pain extent from the pain drawings of 205 individuals with chronic WAD. Pain extent was evaluated in relation to sex, age, educational level, insurance status and financial status. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to verify whether pain extent was associated with other health indicators including perceived pain and disability, health-related quality of life, pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy. ResultsPain extent was influenced by sex ((2):10.392, p&lt;0.001) with larger pain extent in women compared to men (7.887.66% vs. 5.406.44%). People with unsettled insurance claims ((2): 7.500, p&lt;0.05) and those with a worse financial situation ((2):12.223, p&lt;0.01) also had larger pain extent. Multiple linear regression models revealed that, when accounting for age, sex, education, insurance status, financial status and neck pain intensity, pain extent remained associated with perceived disability (p&lt;0.01), depression (p&lt;0.05) and self-efficacy (p&lt;0.001). ConclusionBy utilizing a novel method for pain extent quantification, this study shows that widespread pain is associated with a number of factors including perceived disability, depression and self-efficacy in individuals with chronic WAD. Widespread pain should alert the clinician to consider more specific psychological screening, particularly for depression and self-efficacy, in patients with WAD. What does this study add?Women with chronic WAD, those with unsettled insurance claims and those with poorer financial status perceive more widespread pain. When controlling for these factors, larger pain areas remain associated with perceived pain and disability, depression and self-efficacy. The pain drawing is useful to support psychological screening in people with chronic WAD.</p>
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16.
  • Knip, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Hydrolyzed Infant Formula vs Conventional Formula on Risk of Type 1 Diabetes The TRIGR Randomized Clinical Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. - 0098-7484 .- 1538-3598. ; 319:1, s. 38-48
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>IMPORTANCE Early exposure to complex dietary proteins may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes in children with genetic disease susceptibility. There are no intact proteins in extensively hydrolyzed formulas. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula decreases the cumulative incidence of type 1 diabetes in young children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS An international double-blind randomized clinical trial of 2159 infants with human leukocyte antigen-conferred disease susceptibility and a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes recruited from May 2002 to January 2007 in 78 study centers in 15 countries; 1081 were randomized to be weaned to the extensively hydrolyzed casein formula and 1078 to a conventional formula. The follow-up of the participants ended on February 28, 2017. INTERVENTIONS The participants received either a casein hydrolysate or a conventional adapted cows milk formula supplemented with 20% of the casein hydrolysate. The minimum duration of study formula exposure was 60 days by 6 to 8 months of age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcome was type 1 diabetes diagnosed according to World Health Organization criteria. Secondary outcomes included age at diabetes diagnosis and safety (adverse events). RESULTS Among 2159 newborn infants (1021 female [47.3%]) who were randomized, 1744 (80.8%) completed the trial. The participants were observed for a median of 11.5 years (quartile [Q] 1-Q3, 10.2-12.8). The absolute risk of type 1 diabetes was 8.4% among those randomized to the casein hydrolysate (n = 91) vs 7.6% among those randomized to the conventional formula (n = 82) (difference, 0.8%[95% CI, -1.6% to 3.2%]). The hazard ratio for type 1 diabetes adjusted for human leukocyte antigen risk group, duration of breastfeeding, duration of study formula consumption, sex, and region while treating study center as a random effect was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.8 to 1.5; P = .46). The median age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes was similar in the 2 groups (6.0 years [Q1-Q3, 3.1-8.9] vs 5.8 years [Q1-Q3, 2.6-9.1]; difference, 0.2 years [95% CI, -0.9 to 1.2]). Upper respiratory infections were the most common adverse event reported (frequency, 0.48 events/year in the hydrolysate group and 0.50 events/year in the control group). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among infants at risk for type 1 diabetes, weaning to a hydrolyzed formula compared with a conventional formula did not reduce the cumulative incidence of type 1 diabetes after median follow-up for 11.5 years. These findings do not support a need to revise the dietary recommendations for infants at risk for type 1 diabetes.</p>
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17.
  • Landegren, N, et al. (författare)
  • AIREing out autoimmunity
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE. - 1946-6234. ; 7:292
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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18.
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19.
  • Hallberg, R. T., et al. (författare)
  • Hydrogen-assisted spark discharge generated metal nanoparticles to prevent oxide formation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Aerosol Science and Technology. - Taylor & Francis. - 0278-6826. ; 52:3, s. 347-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There exists a demand for production of metal nanoparticles for today's emerging nanotechnology. Aerosol-generated metal nanoparticles can oxidize during particle formation due to impurities in the carrier gas. One method to produce unoxidized metal nanoparticles is to first generate metal oxides and then reduce them during sintering. Here, we propose to instead prevent oxidation by introducing the reducing agent already at particle formation. We show that by mixing 5% hydrogen into the nitrogen carrier gas, we can generate single crystalline metal nanoparticles by spark discharge from gold, cobalt, bismuth, and tin electrodes. The non-noble nanoparticles exhibit signs of surface oxidation likely formed post-deposition when exposed to air. Nanoparticles generated without hydrogen are found to be primarily polycrystalline and oxidized. To demonstrate the advantages of supplying the reducing agent at generation, we compare to nanoparticles that are generated in nitrogen and sintered in a hydrogen mixture. For bismuth and tin, the crystal quality of the particles after sintering is considerably higher when hydrogen is introduced at particle generation compared to at sintering, whereas for cobalt it is equally effective to only add hydrogen at sintering. We propose that hydrogen present at particle generation prevents the formation of oxide primary particles, thus improving the ability to sinter the nanoparticles to compact and single crystals of metal. This method is general and can be applied to other aerosol generation systems, to improve the generation of size-controlled nanoparticles of non-noble metals with a suitable reducing agent.
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20.
  • Kohut, A., et al. (författare)
  • From plasma to nanoparticles : Optical and particle emission of a spark discharge generator
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nanotechnology. - IOP Publishing. - 0957-4484. ; 28:47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The increased demand for high purity nanoparticles (NPs) of defined geometry necessitates the continuous development of generation routes. One of the most promising physical techniques for producing metal, semiconductor or alloy NPs in the gas phase is spark discharge NP generation. The technique has a great potential for up-scaling without altering the particles. Despite the simplicity of the setup, the formation of NPs in a spark discharge takes place via complex multi-scale processes, which greatly hinders the investigation via conventional NP measurement techniques. In the present work, time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to provide information on the species present in the spark from as early as approximately 100 ns after the initiation of the discharge. We demonstrate that operando emission spectroscopy can deliver valuable insights into NP formation. The emission spectra of the spark are used to identify, among others, the main stages of material erosion and to calculate the quenching rate of the generated metal vapour. We demonstrate that the alteration of key control parameters, that are typically used to optimize NP generation, clearly affect the emission spectra. We report for Cu and Au NPs that the intensity of spectral lines emitted by metal atoms levels off when spark energy is increased above an energy threshold, suggesting that the maximum concentration of metal vapour produced in the generator is limited. This explains the size variation of the generated NPs. We report a strong correlation between the optical and particle emission of the spark discharge generator, which demonstrate the suitability of OES as a valuable characterization tool that will allow for the more deliberate optimization of spark-based NP generation.
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