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1.
  • Wang, Xiaofeng, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for type ia supernova diversity from ultraviolet observations with the hubble space telescope
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 749:2, s. 126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and photometry of four Type Ia supernovae (SNe 2004dt, 2004ef, 2005M, and 2005cf) obtained with the UV prism of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. This data set provides unique spectral time series down to 2000 angstrom. Significant diversity is seen in the near-maximum-light spectra (similar to 2000-3500 angstrom) for this small sample. The corresponding photometric data, together with archival data from Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope observations, provide further evidence of increased dispersion in the UV emission with respect to the optical. The peak luminositiesmeasured in the uvw1/F250W filter are found to correlate with the B-band light-curve shape parameter Delta m(15)(B), but with much larger scatter relative to the correlation in the broadband B band (e.g., similar to 0.4 mag versus similar to 0.2 mag for those with 0.8 mag < Delta m(15)(B) < 1.7 mag). SN 2004dt is found as an outlier of this correlation (at > 3 sigma), being brighter than normal SNe Ia such as SN 2005cf by similar to 0.9 mag and similar to 2.0 mag in the uvw1/F250W and uvm2/F220W filters, respectively. We show that different progenitor metallicity or line-expansion velocities alone cannot explain such a large discrepancy. Viewing-angle effects, such as due to an asymmetric explosion, may have a significant influence on the flux emitted in the UV region. Detailed modeling is needed to disentangle and quantify the above effects.
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2.
  • France, Kevin, et al. (författare)
  • HST-COS Observations of Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon, and Nitrogen Emission from the SN 1987A Reverse Shock
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 743:2, s. 186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the most sensitive ultraviolet observations of Supernova 1987A to date. Imaging spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph shows many narrow (Δv ~ 300 km s-1) emission lines from the circumstellar ring, broad (Δv ~ 10-20 × 103 km s-1) emission lines from the reverse shock, and ultraviolet continuum emission. The high signal-to-noise ratio (>40 per resolution element) broad Lyα emission is excited by soft X-ray and EUV heating of mostly neutral gas in the circumstellar ring and outer supernova debris. The ultraviolet continuum at λ > 1350 Å can be explained by H I two-photon (2s 2 S 1/2-1s 2 S 1/2) emission from the same region. We confirm our earlier, tentative detection of N V λ1240 emission from the reverse shock and present the first detections of broad He II λ1640, C IV λ1550, and N IV] λ1486 emission lines from the reverse shock. The helium abundance in the high-velocity material is He/H = 0.14 ± 0.06. The N V/Hα line ratio requires partial ion-electron equilibration (Te /Tp ≈ 0.14-0.35). We find that the N/C abundance ratio in the gas crossing the reverse shock is significantly higher than that in the circumstellar ring, a result that may be attributed to chemical stratification in the outer envelope of the supernova progenitor. The N/C abundance may have been stratified prior to the ring expulsion, or this result may indicate continued CNO processing in the progenitor subsequent to the expulsion of the circumstellar ring. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
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3.
  • France, Kevin, et al. (författare)
  • Observing Supernova 1987A with the Refurbished Hubble Space Telescope
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 329:5999, s. 1624-1627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted since 1990, now offer an unprecedented glimpse into fast astrophysical shocks in the young remnant of supernova 1987A. Comparing observations taken in 2010 with the use of the refurbished instruments on HST with data taken in 2004, just before the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed, we find that the Ly alpha and H alpha lines from shock emission continue to brighten, whereas their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We observe broad, blueshifted Ly alpha, which we attribute to resonant scattering of photons emitted from hot spots on the equatorial ring. We also detect N v lambda lambda 1239, 1243 angstrom line emission, but only to the red of Ly alpha. The profiles of the N v lines differ markedly from that of H alpha, suggesting that the N4+ ions are scattered and accelerated by turbulent electromagnetic fields that isotropize the ions in the collisionless shock.
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4.
  • Fransson, Claes, et al. (författare)
  • Hubble Space Telescope and Ground-based Observations of SN 1993J and SN 1998S : CNO Processing in the Progenitors
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 622, s. 991-1007
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope observations are presented for SN 1993J and SN 1998S. SN 1998S shows strong, relatively narrow circumstellar emission lines of N III-V and C III-IV, as well as broad lines from the ejecta. Both the broad ultraviolet and optical lines in SN 1998S indicate an expansion velocity of ~7000 km s-1. The broad emission components of Lyα and Mg II are strongly asymmetrical after day 72 past the explosion and differ in shape from Hα. Different models based on dust extinction from dust in the ejecta or shock region, in combination with Hα from a circumstellar torus, are discussed. It is concluded, however, that the double-peaked line profiles are more likely to arise as a result of optical depth effects in the narrow, cool, dense shell behind the reverse shock than in a torus-like region. The ultraviolet lines of SN 1993J are broad, with a boxlike shape, coming from the ejecta and a cool, dense shell. The shapes of the lines are well fitted by a shell with inner velocity ~7000 km s-1 and outer velocity ~10,000 km s-1. For both SN 1993J and SN 1998S a strong nitrogen enrichment is found, with N/C~12.4 in SN 1993J and N/C~6.0 in SN 1998S. From a compilation of all supernovae with determined CNO ratios, we discuss the implications of these observations for the structure of the progenitors of Type II supernovae. Based in part on observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
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5.
  • Gerardy, Christopher L., et al. (författare)
  • Signatures of Delayed Detonation, Asymmetry, and Electron Capture in the Mid-Infrared Spectra of Supernovae 2003hv and 2005df
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Astrophysical Journal. ; 661:2, s. 995-1012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present mid-infrared (5.2-15.2 μm) spectra of the Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) 2003hv and 2005df observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. These are the first observed mid-infrared spectra of thermonuclear supernovae, and show strong emission from fine-structure lines of Ni, Co, S, and Ar. The detection of Ni emission in SN 2005df 135 days after the explosion provides direct observational evidence of high-density nuclear burning forming a significant amount of stable Ni in a SN Ia. The SN 2005df Ar lines also exhibit a two-pronged emission profile, implying that the Ar emission deviates significantly from spherical symmetry. The spectrum of SN 2003hv also shows signs of asymmetry, exhibiting blueshifted [Co III], which matches the blueshift of [Fe II ] lines in nearly coeval near-infrared spectra. Finally, local thermodynamic equilibrium abundance estimates for the yield of radioactive 56Ni give M56Ni~0.5 Msolar, for SN 2003hv, but only M56Ni~0.13-0.22 Msolar for the apparently subluminous SN 2005df, supporting the notion that the luminosity of SNe Ia is primarily a function of the radioactive 56Ni yield. The observed emission-line profiles in the SN 2005df spectrum indicate a chemically stratified ejecta structure, which matches the predictions of delayed detonation (DD) models, but is entirely incompatible with current three-dimensional deflagration models. Furthermore, the degree that this layering persists to the innermost regions of the supernova is difficult to explain even in a DD scenario, where the innermost ejecta are still the product of deflagration burning. Thus, while these results are roughly consistent with a delayed detonation, it is clear that a key piece of physics is still missing from our understanding of the earliest phases of SN Ia explosions.
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6.
  • Graves, Genevieve J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Limits from the Hubble Space Telescope on a Point Source in SN 1987A
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 629, s. 944-959
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We observed supernova 1987A (SN 1987A) with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 1999 September and again with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the HST in 2003 November. Our spectral observations cover ultraviolet (UV) and optical wavelengths from 1140 to 10266 Å, and our imaging observations cover UV and optical wavelengths from 2900 to 9650 Å. No point source is observed in the remnant. We obtain a limiting flux of Fopt<=1.6×10-14 ergs s-1 cm-2 in the wavelength range 2900-9650 Å for any continuum emitter at the center of the supernova remnant (SNR). This corresponds to an intrinsic luminosity of Lopt<=5×1033 ergs s-1. It is likely that the SNR contains opaque dust that absorbs UV and optical emission, resulting in an attenuation of ~35% due to dust absorption in the SNR. Correcting for this level of dust absorption would increase our upper limit on the luminosity of a continuum source by a factor of 1.54. Taking into account dust absorption in the remnant, we find a limit of Lopt<=8×1033 ergs s-1. We compare this upper bound with empirical evidence from point sources in other supernova remnants and with theoretical models for possible compact sources. We show that any survivor of a possible binary system must be no more luminous than an F6 main-sequence star. Bright young pulsars such as Kes 75 or the Crab pulsar are excluded by optical and X-ray limits on SN 1987A. Other nonplerionic X-ray point sources have luminosities similar to the limits on a point source in SN 1987A; RCW 103 and Cas A are slightly brighter than the limits on SN 1987A, while Pup A is slightly fainter. Of the young pulsars known to be associated with SNRs, those with ages <=5000 yr are all too bright in X-rays to be compatible with the limits on SN 1987A. Examining theoretical models for accretion onto a compact object, we find that spherical accretion onto a neutron star is firmly ruled out and that spherical accretion onto a black hole is possible only if there is a larger amount of dust absorption in the remnant than predicted. In the case of thin-disk accretion, our flux limit requires a small disk, no larger than 1010 cm, with an accretion rate no more than 0.3 times the Eddington accretion rate. Possible ways to hide a surviving compact object include the removal of all surrounding material at early times by a photon-driven wind, a small accretion disk, or very high levels of dust absorption in the remnant. It will not be easy to improve substantially on our optical-UV limit for a point source in SN 1987A, although we can hope that a better understanding of the thermal infrared emission will provide a more complete picture of the possible energy sources at the center of SN 1987A.
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7.
  • Heng, Kevin, et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of the Reverse Shock Emission from SNR 1987A
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 644, s. 959-970
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present new (2004 July) G750L and G140L Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) data of the Hα and Lyα emission from supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A. With the aid of earlier data, from 1997 October to 2002 October, we track the local evolution of Lyα emission and both the local and global evolution of Hα emission. The most recent observations allow us to directly compare the Hα and Lyα emission from the same slit position and at the same epoch. Consequently, we find clear evidence that, unlike Hα, Lyα is reflected from the debris by resonant scattering. In addition to emission that we can clearly attribute to the surface of the reverse shock, we also measure comparable emission, in both Hα and Lyα, that appears to emerge from supernova debris interior to the surface. New observations taken through slits positioned slightly eastward and westward of a central slit show a departure from cylindrical symmetry in the Hα surface emission. Using a combination of old and new observations, we construct a light curve of the total Hα flux, F, from the reverse shock, which has increased by a factor of ~4 over about 8 yr. However, due to large systematic uncertainties, we are unable to discern between the two limiting behaviors of the flux: F~t (self-similar expansion) and F~t5 (halting of the reverse shock). Such a determination is important for constraining the rate of hydrogen atoms crossing the shock, which is relevant to the question of whether the reverse shock emission will vanish in <~7 yr. Future deep, low- or moderate-resolution spectra are essential for accomplishing this task.
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8.
  • Kotak, Rubina, et al. (författare)
  • Spitzer Measurements of Atomic and Molecular Abundances in the Type IIP SN 2005af
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 651:2, s. L117-L120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present results based on mid-infrared (3.6-30 μm) observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope of the nearby Type IIP supernova 2005af. We report the first ever detection of the SiO molecule in a Type IIP supernova. Together with the detection of the CO fundamental, this is an exciting finding as it may signal the onset of dust condensation in the ejecta. From a wealth of fine-structure lines we provide abundance estimates for stable Ni, Ar, and Ne that, via spectral synthesis, may be used to constrain nucleosynthesis models.
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9.
  • Meikle, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • A Spitzer Space Telescope Study of SN 2003gd: Still No Direct Evidence that Core-Collapse Supernovae are Major Dust Factories
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Astrophysical Journal. ; 665:1, s. 608-617
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a new, detailed analysis of late-time mid-infrared observations of the Type II-P supernova (SN) 2003gd. At about 16 months after the explosion, the mid-IR flux is consistent with emission from 4×10-5 Msolar of newly condensed dust in the ejecta. At 22 months emission from pointlike sources close to the SN position was detected at 8 and 24 μm. By 42 months the 24 μm flux had faded. Considerations of luminosity and source size rule out the ejecta of SN 2003gd as the main origin of the emission at 22 months. A possible alternative explanation for the emission at this later epoch is an IR echo from preexisting circumstellar or interstellar dust. We conclude that, contrary to the claim of Sugerman and coworkers, the mid-IR emission from SN 2003gd does not support the presence of 0.02 Msolar of newly formed dust in the ejecta. There is, as yet, no direct evidence that core-collapse supernovae are major dust factories.
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10.
  • Michael, Eli, et al. (författare)
  • Hubble Space Telescope Observations of High-Velocity Lyα and Hα Emission from Supernova Remnant 1987A : The Structure and Development of the Reverse Shock
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 593, s. 809-830
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present two-dimensional line profiles of high-velocity (~+/-12,000 km s-1) Lyα and Hα emission from supernova remnant 1987A obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph between 1997 September and 2001 September (days 3869-5327 after the explosion). This emission comes from hydrogen in the debris that is excited and ionized as it passes through the remnant's reverse shock. We use these profiles to measure the geometry and development of the reverse-shock surface. The observed emission is confined within ~+/-30° about the remnant's equatorial plane. At the equator, the reverse shock has a radius of ~75% of the distance to the equatorial ring. We detect marginal differences (6%+/-3%) between the location of the reverse-shock front in the northeast and southwest parts of the remnant. The radius of the reverse shock surface increases for latitudes above the equator, a geometry consistent with a model in which the supernova debris expands into a bipolar nebula. Assuming that the outer supernova debris has a power-law density distribution, we can infer from the reverse-shock emission light curve an expansion rate (in the northeast part of the remnant) of 3700+/-900kms-1, consistent with the expansion velocities determined from observations in radio (Manchester et al.) and X-ray (Park et al.; Michael et al.) wavelengths. However, our most recent observation (at day 5327) suggests that the rate of increase of mass flux across the northeast sector of the reverse shock has accelerated, perhaps because of deceleration of the reverse shock caused by the arrival of a reflected shock created when the blast wave struck the inner ring. Resonant scattering within the supernova debris causes Lyα photons created at the reverse shock to be directed preferentially outward, resulting in a factor of ~5 difference in the observed brightness of the reverse shock in Lyα between the near and far sides of the remnant. Accounting for this effect, we compare the observed reverse-shock Lyα and Hα fluxes to infer the amount of interstellar extinction by dust as E(B-V)=0.17+/-0.01 mag. We also notice extinction by dust in the equatorial ring with E(B-V)~0.02-0.08 mag, which implies dust-to-gas ratios similar to that of the LMC. Since Hα photons are optically thin to scattering, the observed asymmetry in brightness of Hα from the near and far sides of the remnant represents a real asymmetry in the mass flux through the reverse shock of ~30%. We discuss future observational strategies that will permit us to further investigate the reverse-shock dynamics and resonant scattering of the Lyα line and to constrain better the extinction by dust within and in front of the remnant.
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