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1.
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • Fasting Versus Postload Plasma Glucose Concentration and the Risk for Future Type 2 Diabetes Results from the Botnia Study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992. ; 32:2, s. 281-286
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of the postload plasma glucose concentration in predicting future risk of type 2 diabetes, compared with prediction models based oil measurement. of the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 2,442 subjects from the Botnia Study, who were free Of type 2 diabetes at baseline, received an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after 7-8 years of follow-up. Future risk for type 2 diabetes was assessed with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for prediction models based up measurement of the FPG concentration 1) with or without a 1-h plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT and 2) with or without the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS - Prediction models based on measurement of the FPG concentration were weak predictors for the risk of Future type 2 diabetes. Addition of a 1-h plasma glucose Concentration markedly enhanced prediction Of the risk of future type 2 diabetes. A cut point of 155 mg/dl for the 1-h plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT and presence Of the metabolic syndrome were used to Stratify subjects in each glucose tolerance group into low, intermediate, and high risk for future type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - The plasma glucose concentration at 1 h during the OGTT is a Strong predictor of future risk for type 2 diabetes and adds to the prediction power of models based on measurements made during the fasting state. A plasma glucose cut point of 155 mg/dl Plus the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome can be used to stratify nondiabetic subjects into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups.
2.
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • Minimal Contribution of Fasting Hyperglycemia to the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Subjects With Normal 2-h Plasma Glucose
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992. ; 33:3, s. 557-561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE - To assess the relative contribution of increased fasting and postload plasma glucose concentrations to the incidence of type 2 diabetes in subjects with a normal 2-h plasma glucose concentration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A total of 3,450 subjects with 2-h plasma glucose concentration < 140 mg/dl at baseline were followed up in the San Antonio Heart Study (SAHS) and the Botnia Study for 7-8 years. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was related to the fasting, 1-h, and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations. RESULTS - in subjects with 2-h plasma glucose < 140 mg/dl, the incidence of type 2 diabetes increased with increasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 1-h and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations. In a multivariate logistic analysis, after adjustment for all diabetes risk factors, the FPG concentration was a Strong predictor Of type 2 diabetes in both the SAHS and the Botnia Study (P < 0.0001). However, when the 1-h plasma glucose, but not 2-h plasma glucose, concentration was added to the model, FPG concentration was no longer a significant predictor of type 2 diabetes in both Studies (NS). When subjects were matched for the level of 1-h plasma glucose concentration, the incidence Of type 2 diabetes markedly increased with the increase in 1-h plasma glucose, but the increase in FPG was not associated with a significant increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS - An increase in postload glycemia in the normal range is associated with an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. After controlling for 1-h plasma glucose concentration, the increase in FPG concentration is not associated with an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
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3.
  • Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A., et al. (författare)
  • The shape of plasma glucose concentration curve during OGTT predicts future risk of type 2 diabetes
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. - Wiley InterScience. - 1520-7552. ; 26:4, s. 280-286
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between the shape of plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT and future risk for T2DM. Methods 2445 non-diabetic subjects from the Botnia study received an OGTT at baseline and after 7-8 years of follow-up. Results NGT and IFG subjects who returned their plasma glucose concentration following an ingested glucose load below FPG within 60 min had increased insulin sensitivity, greater insulin secretion and lower risk for future T2DM compared to NGT and IFG subjects whose post-load plasma glucose concentration required 120 min or longer to return their plasma glucose level to FPG level. IGT subjects who had a lower plasma glucose concentration at 1-h compared to 2-h during oGrr had greater insulin sensitivity, better beta cell function and lower risk for future T2DM. Conclusions These data suggest that the shape of glucose curve can be utilized to assess future risk for T2DM. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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5.
  • Ahlqvist, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • A common variant upstream of the PAX6 gene influences islet function in man.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 1432-0428. ; 55, s. 94-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired insulin secretion have been reported in families with PAX6 mutations and it is suggested that they result from defective proinsulin processing due to lack of prohormone convertase 1/3, encoded by PCSK1. We investigated whether a common PAX6 variant would mimic these findings and explored in detail its effect on islet function in man. METHODS: A PAX6 candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (rs685428) was associated with fasting insulin levels in the Diabetes Genetics Initiative genome-wide association study. We explored its potential association with glucose tolerance and insulin processing and secretion in three Scandinavian cohorts (N = 8,897 individuals). In addition, insulin secretion and the expression of PAX6 and transcriptional target genes were studied in human pancreatic islets. RESULTS: rs685428 G allele carriers had lower islet mRNA expression of PAX6 (p = 0.01) and PCSK1 (p = 0.001) than AA homozygotes. The G allele was associated with increased fasting insulin (p (replication) = 0.02, p (all) = 0.0008) and HOMA-insulin resistance (p (replication) = 0.02, p (all) = 0.001) as well as a lower fasting proinsulin/insulin ratio (p (all) = 0.008) and lower fasting glucagon (p = 0.04) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) (p = 0.05) concentrations. Arginine-stimulated (p = 0.02) insulin secretion was reduced in vivo, which was further reflected by a reduction of glucose- and potassium-stimulated insulin secretion (p = 0.002 and p = 0.04, respectively) in human islets in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A common variant in PAX6 is associated with reduced PAX6 and PCSK1 expression in human islets and reduced insulin response, as well as decreased glucagon and GIP concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity. These findings emphasise the central role of PAX6 in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism in man.
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6.
  • Ahlqvist, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • A link between GIP and osteopontin in adipose tissue and insulin resistance.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - American Diabetes Association. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 62:6, s. 2088-2094
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Low grade inflammation in obesity is associated with accumulation of the macrophagederived cytokine osteopontin in adipose tissue and induction of local as well as systemic insulin resistance. Since GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) is a strong stimulator of adipogenesis and may play a role in the development of obesity, we explored whether GIP directly would stimulate osteopontin (OPN) expression in adipose tissue and thereby induce insulin resistance. GIP stimulated OPN protein expression in a dose-dependent fashion in rat primary adipocytes. The level of OPN mRNA was higher in adipose tissue of obese individuals (0.13±}0.04 vs 0.04±}0.01, P<0.05) and correlated inversely with measures of insulin sensitivity (r=-0.24, P=0.001). A common variant of the GIP receptor (GIPR) (rs10423928) gene was associated with lower amount of the exon 9 containing isoform required for transmembrane activity. Carriers of the A-allele with a reduced receptor function showed lower adipose tissue OPN mRNA levels and better insulin sensitivity. Together, these data suggest a role for GIP not only as an incretin hormone, but also as a trigger of inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Carriers of GIPR rs10423928 A-allele showed protective properties via reduced GIP effects. Identification of this unprecedented link between GIP and OPN in adipose tissue might open new avenues for therapeutic interventions.
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8.
  • Alkayyali, Sami, et al. (författare)
  • Common variant in the HMGA2 gene increases susceptibility to nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 1432-0428. ; :Oct.,31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with devastating microvascular complications. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes and/or glucose and insulin traits, but their role in the progression of diabetes is not established. The aim of this study was to explore whether these variants were also associated with the development of nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We studied 28 genetic variants in 2,229 patients with type 2 diabetes from the local Malmö Scania Diabetes Registry (SDR) published during 2007-2010. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) was defined as micro- or macroalbuminuria and/or end-stage renal disease. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was assessed using the MDRD-4 formula. Replication genotyping of rs1531343 was performed in diabetic (Steno type 2 diabetes n = 345, Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Scotland Go-DARTS n = 784) and non-diabetic (Malmö Preventive Project n = 2,523, Botnia study n = 2,247) cohorts. RESULTS: In the SDR, HMGA2 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1531343 was associated with DN (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20, 1.87, p = 0.00035). In the combined analysis totalling 3,358 patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 1,233 cases, n = 2,125 controls), carriers of the C-allele had a 1.45-fold increased risk of developing nephropathy (95% CI 1.20, 1.75, p = 0.00010). Furthermore, the risk C-allele was associated with lower eGFR in patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 2,499, β ± SEM, -3.7 ± 1.2 ml/min, p = 0.002) and also in non-diabetic individuals (n = 17,602, β ± SEM, -0.008 ± 0.003 ml/min (log( e )), p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These data demonstrate that the HMGA2 variant seems to be associated with increased risk of developing nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes and lower eGFR in both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals and could thus be a common denominator in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and kidney complications.
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9.
  • Alkayyali, Sami, et al. (författare)
  • Genetics of diabetes complications.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society. - 1432-1777. ; :Aug 29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic hyperglycemia and duration of diabetes are the major risk factors associated with development of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Although it is believed that hyperglycemia induces damage to the particular cell subtypes, e.g., mesangial cells in the renal glomerulus, capillary endothelial cells in the retina, and neurons and Schwann cells in peripheral nerves, the exact mechanisms underlying these damaging defects are not yet well understood. Clustering of micro- and macrovascular complications in families of patients with diabetes suggests a strong genetic susceptibility. However, until now only a handful number of genetic variants were reported to be associated with either nephropathy (ACE, ELMO1, FRMD3, and AKR1B1) or retinopathy (VEGF, AKR1B1, and EPO), and only a few studies were carried out for genetic susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases (ADIPOQ, GLUL) in patients with diabetes. It is, therefore, obvious that the accumulation of more data from larger studies and better phenotypically characterized cohorts is needed to facilitate genetic discoveries and unravel novel insights into the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.
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10.
  • Almgren, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Heritability and familiality of type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits in the Botnia Study.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 1432-0428. ; 54, s. 2811-2819
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To study the heritability and familiality of type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits in families from the Botnia Study in Finland. METHODS: Heritability estimates for type 2 diabetes adjusted for sex, age and BMI are provided for different age groups of type 2 diabetes and for 34 clinical and metabolic traits in 5,810 individuals from 942 families using a variance component model (SOLAR). In addition, family means of these traits and their distribution across families are calculated. RESULTS: The strongest heritability for type 2 diabetes was seen in patients with age at onset 35-60 years (h (2) = 0.69). However, including patients with onset up to 75 years dropped the h (2) estimates to 0.31. Among quantitative traits, the highest h (2) estimates in all individuals and in non-diabetic individuals were seen for lean body mass (h (2) = 0.53-0.65), HDL-cholesterol (0.52-0.61) and suppression of NEFA during OGTT (0.63-0.76) followed by measures of insulin secretion (insulinogenic index IG(30) = 0.41-0.50) and insulin action (insulin sensitivity index ISI = 0.37-0.40). In contrast, physical activity showed rather low heritability (0.16-0.18), whereas smoking showed strong heritability (0.57-0.59). Family means of these traits differed two- to fivefold between families belonging to the lowest and highest quartile of the trait (p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: To detect stronger genetic effects in type 2 diabetes, it seems reasonable to restrict inclusion of patients to those with age at onset 35-60 years. Sequencing of families with extreme quantitative traits could be an important next step in the dissection of the genetics of type 2 diabetes.
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