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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Maoz D.) srt2:(2015-2019)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Maoz D.) > (2015-2019)

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1.
  • Ryu, Y. -H., et al. (författare)
  • OGLE-2016-BLG-1190Lb : The First Spitzer Bulge Planet Lies Near the Planet/Brown-dwarf Boundary
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 155:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of OGLE-2016-BLG-1190Lb, which is likely to be the first Spitzer microlensing planet in the Galactic bulge/ bar, an assignation that can be confirmed by two epochs of high-resolution imaging of the combined source-lens baseline object. The planet's mass, M-p = 13.4 +/- 0.9 M-J, places it right at the deuteriumburning limit, i. e., the conventional boundary between planets and brown dwarfs. Its existence raises the question of whether such objects are really planets (formed within the disks of their hosts) or failed stars (lowmass objects formed by gas fragmentation). This question may ultimately be addressed by comparing disk and bulge/bar planets, which is a goal of the Spitzer microlens program. The host is a G dwarf, M-host = 0.89. +/- 0.07 M-circle dot, and the planet has a semimajor axis a similar to 2.0 au. We use Kepler K2 Campaign 9 microlensing data to break the lens-mass degeneracy that generically impacts parallax solutions from Earth-Spitzer observations alone, which is the first successful application of this approach. The microlensing data, derived primarily from near-continuous, ultradense survey observations from OGLE, MOA, and three KMTNet telescopes, contain more orbital information than for any previous microlensing planet, but not quite enough to accurately specify the full orbit. However, these data do permit the first rigorous test of microlensing orbital-motion measurements, which are typically derived from data taken over < 1% of an orbital period.
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2.
  • Lehmann-Werman, Roni, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of tissue-specific cell death using methylation patterns of circulating DNA.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 1091-6490 .- 0027-8424. ; 113:13, s. E1826-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Minimally invasive detection of cell death could prove an invaluable resource in many physiologic and pathologic situations. Cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) released from dying cells is emerging as a diagnostic tool for monitoring cancer dynamics and graft failure. However, existing methods rely on differences in DNA sequences in source tissues, so that cell death cannot be identified in tissues with a normal genome. We developed a method of detecting tissue-specific cell death in humans based on tissue-specific methylation patterns in cfDNA. We interrogated tissue-specific methylome databases to identify cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures and developed a method to detect these signatures in mixed DNA samples. We isolated cfDNA from plasma or serum of donors, treated the cfDNA with bisulfite, PCR-amplified the cfDNA, and sequenced it to quantify cfDNA carrying the methylation markers of the cell type of interest. Pancreatic β-cell DNA was identified in the circulation of patients with recently diagnosed type-1 diabetes and islet-graft recipients; oligodendrocyte DNA was identified in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis; neuronal/glial DNA was identified in patients after traumatic brain injury or cardiac arrest; and exocrine pancreas DNA was identified in patients with pancreatic cancer or pancreatitis. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that the tissue origins of cfDNA and thus the rate of death of specific cell types can be determined in humans. The approach can be adapted to identify cfDNA derived from any cell type in the body, offering a minimally invasive window for diagnosing and monitoring a broad spectrum of human pathologies as well as providing a better understanding of normal tissue dynamics.
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3.
  • Maoz, Ben M., et al. (författare)
  • A linked organ-on-chip model of the human neurovascular unit reveals the metabolic coupling of endothelial and neuronal cells
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Biotechnology. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1087-0156 .- 1546-1696. ; 36:9, s. 865-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The neurovascular unit (NVU) regulates metabolic homeostasis as well as drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the central nervous system. Metabolic fluxes and conversions over the NVU rely on interactions between brain microvascular endothelium, perivascular pericytes, astrocytes and neurons, making it difficult to identify the contributions of each cell type. Here we model the human NVU using microfluidic organ chips, allowing analysis of the roles of individual cell types in NVU functions. Three coupled chips model influx across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the brain parenchymal compartment and efflux across the BBB. We used this linked system to mimic the effect of intravascular administration of the psychoactive drug methamphetamine and to identify previously unknown metabolic coupling between the BBB and neurons. Thus, the NVU system offers an in vitro approach for probing transport, efficacy, mechanism of action and toxicity of neuroactive drugs.
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5.
  • Shvartzvald, Yossi, et al. (författare)
  • Spitzer Microlensing Parallax for OGLE-2017-BLG-0896 Reveals a Counter-rotating Low-mass Brown Dwarf
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 157:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The kinematics of isolated brown dwarfs in the Galaxy, beyond the solar neighborhood, is virtually unknown. Microlensing has the potential to probe this hidden population, as it can measure both the mass and five of the six phase-space coordinates (all except the radial velocity) even of a dark isolated lens. However, the measurements of both the microlens-parallax and finite-source effects are needed in order to recover the full information. Here, we combine the Spitzer satellite parallax measurement with the ground-based light curve, which exhibits strong finite-source effects, of event OGLE-2017-BLG-0896. We find two degenerate solutions for the lens (due to the known satellite-parallax degeneracy), which are consistent with each other except for their proper motion. The lens is an isolated brown dwarf with a mass of either 18 +/- 1 M-J or 20 +/- 1 M-J. This is the lowest isolated-object mass measurement to date, only similar to 45% more massive than the theoretical deuterium-fusion boundary at solar metallicity, which is the common definition of a free-floating planet. The brown dwarf is located at either 3.9 +/- 0.1 kpc or 4.1 +/- 0.1 kpc toward the Galactic bulge, but with proper motion in the opposite direction of disk stars, with one solution suggesting it is moving within the Galactic plane. While it is possibly a halo brown dwarf, it might also represent a different, unknown population.
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