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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Masters Colin L.) srt2:(2005-2009)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Masters Colin L.) > (2005-2009)

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1.
  • Cappai, Roberto, et al. (författare)
  • The amyloid precursor protein(APP)of Alzheimer's disease and its paralog APLP2 modulate the Cu/Zn-NO-catalyzed degradation of glypican-1 heparan sulfate In vivo.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : ASBMB. - 1083-351X. ; 280:14, s. 13913-13920
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Processing of the recycling proteoglycan glypican-1 involves the release of its heparan sulfate chains by copper ion- and nitric oxide-catalyzed ascorbate-triggered autodegradation. The Alzheimer disease amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its paralogue, the amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2), contain copper ion-, zinc ion-, and heparan sulfate-binding domains. We have investigated the possibility that APP and APLP2 regulate glypican-1 processing during endocytosis and recycling. By using cell-free biochemical experiments, confocal laser immunofluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry of tissues and cells from wild-type and knock-out mice, we find that (a) APP and glypican-1 colocalize in perinuclear compartments of neuroblastoma cells, (b) ascorbate-triggered nitric oxidecatalyzed glypican-1 autodegradation is zinc ion-dependent in the same cells, (c) in cell-free experiments, APP but not APLP2 stimulates glypican-1 autodegradation in the presence of both Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions, whereas the Cu(I) form of APP and the Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms of APLP2 inhibit autodegradation, (d) in primary cortical neurons from APP or APLP2 knock-out mice, there is an increased nitric oxide-catalyzed degradation of heparan sulfate compared with brain tissue and neurons from wild-type mice, and (e) in growth-quiescent fibroblasts from APLP2 knock-out mice, but not from APP knock-out mice, there is also an increased heparan sulfate degradation. We propose that the rate of autoprocessing of glypican-1 is modulated by APP and APLP2 in neurons and by APLP2 in fibroblasts. These observation identify a functional relationship between the heparan sulfate and copper ion binding activities of APP/APLP2 in their modulation of the nitroxyl anion-catalyzed heparan sulfate degradation in glypican-1.
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2.
  • Lannfelt, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Safety, efficacy, and biomarker findings of PBT2 in targeting A beta as a modifying therapy for Alzheimer's disease : a phase IIa, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 7:9, s. 779-786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background PBT2 is a metal-protein attenuating compound (MPAC) that affects the Cu2+-mediated and Zn2+-mediated toxic oligomerisation of A beta seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Strong preclinical efficacy data and the completion of early, clinical safety studies have preceded this phase IIa study, the aim of which was to assess the effects of PBT2 on safety, efficacy, and biomarkers of AD. Methods Between December 6, 2006, and September 21, 2007, community-dwelling patients over age 55 years were recruited to this 12-week, double-blind, randomised trial of PBT2. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 50 mg PBT2, 250 mg PBT2, or placebo. Inclusion criteria were early AD (mini-mental state examination [MMSE] score between 20 and 26 points or Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) score between 10 and 25 points), taking a stable dose of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine) for at least 4 months, a modified Hachinski score of 4 points or less, and CT or MRI results that were consistent with AD. The principal outcomes were safety and tolerability. Secondary outcomes were plasma and CSF biomarkers and cognition. Analysis was intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00471211. Findings 78 patients were randomly assigned (29 to placebo, 20 to PBT2 50 mg, and 29 to PBT2 250 mg) and 74 (95%) completed the study. 42 (54%) patients had at least one treatment emergent adverse event (10 [50%] on PBT2 50 mg, 18 [62%] on PBT2 250 mg, and 14 [48%] on placebo). No serious adverse events were reported by patients on PBT2. Patients treated with PBT2 250 mg had a dose-dependent (p=0.023) and significant reduction in CSF A beta(42) concentration compared with those treated with placebo (difference in least squares mean change from baseline was -56.0 pg/mL, 95% Cl -101.5 to -11.0; p=0.006). PBT2 had no effect on plasma biomarkers of AD or serum Zn2+ and Cu2+ concentrations. Cognition testing included ADAS-cog, MMSE, and a neuropsychological test battery (NTB). Of these tests, two executive function component tests of the NTB showed significant improvement over placebo in the PBT2 250 mg group: category fluency test (2.8 words, 0.1 to 5.4; p=0.041) and trail making part B (-48.0 s, -83.0 to -13.0; p=0.009). Interpretation The safety profile is favourable for the ongoing development of PBT2. The effect on putative biomarkers for AD in CSF but not in plasma is suggestive of a central effect of the drug on A beta metabolism. Cognitive efficacy was restricted to two measures of executive function. Future trials that are larger and longer will establish if the effects of PBT2 on biomarkers and cognition that are reported here translate into clinical effectiveness.
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3.
  • Lannfelt, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Safety, efficacy, and biomarker findings of PBT2 in targeting Abeta as a modifying therapy for Alzheimer's disease: a phase IIa, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Lancet neurology. - 1474-4422. ; 7:9, s. 779-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: PBT2 is a metal-protein attenuating compound (MPAC) that affects the Cu2(+)-mediated and Zn2(+)-mediated toxic oligomerisation of Abeta seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Strong preclinical efficacy data and the completion of early, clinical safety studies have preceded this phase IIa study, the aim of which was to assess the effects of PBT2 on safety, efficacy, and biomarkers of AD. METHODS: Between December 6, 2006, and September 21, 2007, community-dwelling patients over age 55 years were recruited to this 12-week, double-blind, randomised trial of PBT2. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 50 mg PBT2, 250 mg PBT2, or placebo. Inclusion criteria were early AD (mini-mental state examination [MMSE] score between 20 and 26 points or Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) score between 10 and 25 points), taking a stable dose of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine) for at least 4 months, a modified Hachinski score of 4 points or less, and CT or MRI results that were consistent with AD. The principal outcomes were safety and tolerability. Secondary outcomes were plasma and CSF biomarkers and cognition. Analysis was intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00471211. FINDINGS: 78 patients were randomly assigned (29 to placebo, 20 to PBT2 50 mg, and 29 to PBT2 250 mg) and 74 (95%) completed the study. 42 (54%) patients had at least one treatment emergent adverse event (10 [50%] on PBT2 50 mg, 18 [62%] on PBT2 250 mg, and 14 [48%] on placebo). No serious adverse events were reported by patients on PBT2. Patients treated with PBT2 250 mg had a dose-dependent (p=0.023) and significant reduction in CSF Abeta(42) concentration compared with those treated with placebo (difference in least squares mean change from baseline was -56.0 pg/mL, 95% CI -101.5 to -11.0; p=0.006). PBT2 had no effect on plasma biomarkers of AD or serum Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) concentrations. Cognition testing included ADAS-cog, MMSE, and a neuropsychological test battery (NTB). Of these tests, two executive function component tests of the NTB showed significant improvement over placebo in the PBT2 250 mg group: category fluency test (2.8 words, 0.1 to 5.4; p=0.041) and trail making part B (-48.0 s, -83.0 to -13.0; p=0.009). INTERPRETATION: The safety profile is favourable for the ongoing development of PBT2. The effect on putative biomarkers for AD in CSF but not in plasma is suggestive of a central effect of the drug on Abeta metabolism. Cognitive efficacy was restricted to two measures of executive function. Future trials that are larger and longer will establish if the effects of PBT2 on biomarkers and cognition that are reported here translate into clinical effectiveness.
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4.
  • Westermark, Per, et al. (författare)
  • A primer of amyloid nomenclature
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Amyloid. - 1350-6129 .- 1744-2818. ; 14:3, s. 179-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The increasing knowledge of the exact biochemical nature of the localized and systemic amyloid disorders has made a logical and easily understood nomenclature absolutely necessary. Such a nomenclature, biochemically based, has been used for several years but the current literature is still mixed up with many clinical and histochemically based designations from the time when amyloid in general was poorly understood. All amyloid types are today preferably named by their major fibril protein. This makes a simple and rational nomenclature for the increasing number of amyloid disorders known in humans and animals.
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