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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(McCloskey Eugene) srt2:(2010-2014)"

Sökning: WFRF:(McCloskey Eugene) > (2010-2014)

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  • Oei, L., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study for radiographic vertebral fractures: A potential role for the 16q24 BMD locus
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Bone. - : Elsevier. - 8756-3282 .- 1873-2763. ; 59, s. 20-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vertebral fracture risk is a heritable complex trait. The aim of this study was to identify genetic susceptibility factors for osteoporotic vertebral fracture applying a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach. The GWAS discovery was based on the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study of elderly Dutch individuals aged >55 years; and comprising 329 cases and 2666 controls with radiographic scoring (McCloskey-Kanis) and genetic data. Replication of one top-associated SNP was pursued by de-novo genotyping of 15 independent studies across Europe, the United States, and Australia and one Asian study. Radiographic vertebral fracture assessment was performed using McCloskey-Kanis or Genant semi-quantitative definitions. SNPs were analyzed in relation to vertebral fracture using logistic regression models corrected for age and sex. Fixed effects inverse variance and Han-Eskin alternative random effects meta-analyses were applied. Genome-wide significance was set at p<5 x 10(-8). In the discovery, a SNP (rs11645938) on chromosome 16q24 was associated with the risk for vertebral fractures at p = 4.6 x 10(-8). However, the association was not significant across 5720 cases and 21,791 controls from 14 studies. Fixed-effects meta-analysis summary estimate was 1.06 (95% Cl: 0.98-1.14; p = 0.17), displaying high degree of heterogeneity (I-2= 57%; Q(het)p = 0.0006). Under Han-Eskin alternative random effects model the summary effect was significant (p = 0.0005). The SNP maps to a region previously found associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD) in two large meta-analyses from the GEFOS consortium. A false positive association in the GWAS discovery cannot be excluded, yet, the low-powered setting of the discovery and replication settings (appropriate to identify risk effect size >1.25) may still be consistent with an effect size <1.10, more of the type expected in complex traits. Larger effort in studies with standardized phenotype definitions is needed to confirm or reject the involvement of this locus on the risk for vertebral fractures. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Estrada, Karol, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 44:5, s. 491-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects and for association with risk of low-trauma fracture in 31,016 individuals with a history of fracture (cases) and 102,444 controls. We identified 56 loci (32 new) associated with BMD at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Several of these factors cluster within the RANK-RANKL-OPG, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, endochondral ossification and Wnt signaling pathways. However, we also discovered loci that were localized to genes not known to have a role in bone biology. Fourteen BMD-associated loci were also associated with fracture risk (P < 5 × 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected), of which six reached P < 5 × 10(-8), including at 18p11.21 (FAM210A), 7q21.3 (SLC25A13), 11q13.2 (LRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility.
  • Giangregorio, Lora M, et al. (författare)
  • FRAX underestimates fracture risk in patients with diabetes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research. - 1523-4681. ; 27:2, s. 301-308
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study objective was to determine whether diabetes is a risk factor for incident hip or major osteoporotic fractures independent of FRAX. Men and women with diabetes (N = 3,518) and non-diabetics (N = 36,085) age ≥50 years at the time of BMD testing (1990-2007) were identified in a large clinical database from Manitoba, Canada. FRAX probabilities were calculated and fracture outcomes to 2008 were established via linkage with a population-based data repository. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine if diabetes was associated with incident hip fractures or major osteoporotic fractures after controlling for FRAX risk factors. Mean 10-year probabilities of fracture were similar between groups for major fractures (diabetic 11.1 ± 7.2 vs. non-diabetic 10.9 ± 7.3, p-value = 0.116) and hip fractures (diabetic 2.9 ± 4.4 vs. non-diabetic 2.8 ± 4.4, p-value = 0.400). Diabetes was a significant predictor of subsequent major osteoporotic fracture (HR 1.61 [95% CI; 1.42-1.83]) after controlling for age, sex, medication use, and FRAX risk factors including BMD. Similar results were seen after adjusting for FRAX probability directly (HR 1.59 [95% CI; 1.40-1.79]). Diabetes was also associated with significantly higher risk for hip fractures (p-value < 0.001). Higher mortality from diabetes attenuated but did not eliminate the excess fracture risk. FRAX underestimated observed major osteoporotic and hip fracture risk in diabetics (adjusted for competing mortality), but demonstrated good concordance with observed fractures for non-diabetics. We conclude that diabetes confers an increased risk of fracture that is independent of FRAX derived with BMD. This suggests that diabetes might be considered for inclusion in future iterations of FRAX. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
  • Johansson, Helena, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of the association of fracture risk and body mass index in women.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. - 1523-4681. ; 29:1, s. 223-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several recent studies suggest that obesity may be a risk factor for fracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and future fracture risk at different skeletal sites. In prospective cohorts from more than 25 countries, baseline data on BMI were available in 398,610 women with an average age of 63 (range, 20-105) years and follow up of 2.2 million person-years during which 30,280 osteoporotic fractures (6457 hip fractures) occurred. Femoral neck BMD was measured in 108,267 of these women. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ) was present in 22%. A majority of osteoporotic fractures (81%) and hip fractures (87%) arose in non-obese women. Compared to a BMI of 25 kg/m(2) , the hazard ratio (HR) for osteoporotic fracture at a BMI of 35 kg/m(2) was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.90). When adjusted for bone mineral density (BMD), however, the same comparison showed that the HR for osteoporotic fracture was increased (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09-1.23). Low BMI is a risk factor for hip and all osteoporotic fracture, but is a protective factor for lower leg fracture, whereas high BMI is a risk factor for upper arm (humerus and elbow) fracture. When adjusted for BMD, low BMI remained a risk factor for hip fracture but was protective for osteoporotic fracture, tibia and fibula fracture, distal forearm fracture, and upper arm fracture. When adjusted for BMD, high BMI remained a risk factor for upper arm fracture but was also a risk factor for all osteoporotic fractures. The association between BMI and fracture risk is complex, differs across skeletal sites, and is modified by the interaction between BMI and BMD. At a population level, high BMI remains a protective factor for most sites of fragility fracture. The contribution of increasing population rates of obesity to apparent decreases in fracture rates should be explored. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
  • Johansson, Helena, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • High serum adiponectin predicts incident fractures in elderly men: Osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) Sweden.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. - : AMBMR. - 1523-4681 .- 0884-0431. ; 27:6, s. 1390-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adipocytes and osteoblasts share a common progenitor, and there is, therefore, potential for both autocrine and endocrine effects of adiponectin on skeletal metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine whether high serum adiponectin was associated with an increased risk of fracture in elderly men. We studied the relationship between serum adiponectin and the risk of fracture in 999 elderly men drawn from the general population and recruited to the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study in Gothenburg, Sweden. Baseline data included general health questionnaires, lifestyle questionnaires, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), serum adiponectin, osteocalcin, and leptin. Men were followed for up to 7.4 years (average, 5.2 years). Poisson regression was used to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin, other risk variables and the time-to-event hazard function of fracture. Median levels of serum adiponectin at baseline were 10.4 µg/mL (interquartile range, 7.7-14.3). During follow-up, 150 men sustained one or more fractures. The risk of fracture increased in parallel with increasing serum adiponectin (hazard ratio [HR]/SD, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.72) and persisted after multivariate-adjusted analysis (HR/SD, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.55). Serum adiponectin shows graded stepwise association with a significant excess risk of fracture in elderly men that was independent of several other risk factors for fracture. Its measurement holds promise as a risk factor for fracture in men.
  • Kanis, John A, et al. (författare)
  • FRAX(®) with and without Bone Mineral Density
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Calcified tissue international. - 1432-0827 .- 0171-967X. ; 90:1, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use of FRAX, particularly in the absence of BMD, has been the subject of some debate and is the focus of this review. The clinical risk factors used in FRAX have high validity as judged from an evidence-based assessment and identify a risk that is responsive to pharmaceutical intervention. Moreover, treatment effects, with the possible exception of alendronate, are not dependent on baseline BMD and strongly suggest that FRAX identifies high-risk patients who respond to pharmaceutical interventions. In addition, the selection of high-risk individuals with FRAX, without knowledge of BMD, preferentially selects for low BMD. The prediction of fractures with the use of clinical risk factors alone in FRAX is comparable to the use of BMD alone to predict fractures and is suitable, therefore, in the many countries where DXA facilities are sparse. In countries where access to BMD is greater, FRAX can be used without BMD in the majority of cases and BMD tests reserved for those close to a probability-based intervention threshold. Whereas the efficacy for agents to reduce fracture risk has not been tested prospectively in randomized controlled trials in patients selected on the basis of FRAX probabilities, there is compelling evidence that FRAX with or without the use of BMD provides a well-validated instrument for targeting patients most likely to benefit from an intervention.
  • Kanis, John A, et al. (författare)
  • The distribution of FRAX(®)-based probabilities in women from Japan.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism. - 1435-5604 .- 0914-8779. ; 30:6, s. 700-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New assessment guidelines for osteoporosis in Japan include the use of the WHO risk assessment tool (FRAX) that computes the 10-year probability of fracture. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of fracture probabilities and to assess the impact of probability-based intervention thresholds in women from Japan aged 50 years and older. Age-specific simulation cohorts were constructed from the prevalences of clinical risk factors and femoral neck bone mineral density to determine the distribution of fracture probabilities as assessed by FRAX. These data were used to estimate the number and proportion of women at or above a 10-year fracture probability of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 %. In addition, case scenarios that applied a FRAX probability threshold of 15 % were compared with current guidance. In the absence of additional criteria for treatment, a 15 % fracture probability threshold would identify approximately 32 % of women over the age of 50 years (9.3 million women) as eligible for treatment. Because of expected changes in population demography, the 15 % fracture probability threshold would capture approximately 38 % of women over the age of 50 years (12.7 million women), mainly those aged 80 years or older. The introduction of a FRAX threshold of 15 % would permit treatment in women with clinical risk factors that would otherwise fall below previously established intervention thresholds. The incorporation of FRAX into assessment guidelines is likely to redirect treatments for osteoporosis from younger women at low risk to elderly women at high fracture risk.
  • Leslie, William D, et al. (författare)
  • Does osteoporosis therapy invalidate FRAX for fracture prediction?
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. - 1523-4681. ; 27:6, s. 1243-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ten-year fracture risk assessment with the fracture risk assessment system (FRAX) is increasingly used to guide treatment decisions. Osteoporosis pharmacotherapy reduces fracture risk, but the effect is greater than can be explained from the increase in bone mineral density (BMD). Whether this invalidates fracture predictions with FRAX is uncertain. A total of 35,764 women (age ≥50 years) and baseline BMD testing (1996–2007) had FRAX probabilities retroactively calculated. A provincial pharmacy database was used to identify osteoporosis medication use. Women were categorized as untreated, current high adherence users [medication possession ratio (MPR) ≥0.80 in the year after BMD testing], current low adherence users (MPR
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