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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(McConnell J. C.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(McConnell J. C.)

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1.
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2.
  • Dahl-Jensen, D., et al. (författare)
  • Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 493:7433, s. 489-494
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Efforts to extract a Greenland ice core with a complete record of the Eemian interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) have until now been unsuccessful. The response of the Greenland ice sheet to the warmer-than-present climate of the Eemian has thus remained unclear. Here we present the new North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ('NEEM') ice core and show only a modest ice-sheet response to the strong warming in the early Eemian. We reconstructed the Eemian record from folded ice using globally homogeneous parameters known from dated Greenland and Antarctic ice-core records. On the basis of water stable isotopes, NEEM surface temperatures after the onset of the Eemian (126,000 years ago) peaked at 8 +/- 4 degrees Celsius above the mean of the past millennium, followed by a gradual cooling that was probably driven by the decreasing summer insolation. Between 128,000 and 122,000 years ago, the thickness of the northwest Greenland ice sheet decreased by 400 +/- 250 metres, reaching surface elevations 122,000 years ago of 130 +/- 300 metres lower than the present. Extensive surface melt occurred at the NEEM site during the Eemian, a phenomenon witnessed when melt layers formed again at NEEM during the exceptional heat of July 2012. With additional warming, surface melt might become more common in the future.
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3.
  • Ballantyne, C., et al. (författare)
  • Collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from observational studies of Lp-PLA(2) and cardiovascular diseases
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1741-8267. ; 14:1, s. 41344
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background A large number of observational epidemiological studies have reported generally positive associations' between circulating mass and activity levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Few studies have been large enough to provide reliable estimates in different circumstances, such as in different subgroups (e.g., by age group, sex, or smoking status) or at different Lp-PLA2 levels. Moreover, most published studies have related disease risk only to baseline values of Lp-PLA(2) markers (which can lead to substantial underestimation of any risk relationships because of within-person variability over time) and have used different approaches to adjustment for possible confounding factors. Objectives By combination of data from individual participants from all relevant observational studies in a systematic,meta-analysis, with correction for regression dilution (using available data on serial measurements of Lp-PLA(2)), the Lp-PLA(2) Studies Collaboration will aim to characterize more precisely than has previously been possible the strength and shape of the age and sex-specific associations of plasma Lp-PLA(2) with coronary heart disease (and, where data are sufficient with other vascular diseases, such as ischaemic stroke). It will also help to determine to what extent such associations are independent of possible confounding factors and to explore potential sources of heterogeneity among studies, such as those related to assay methods and study design. It is anticipated that the present collaboration will serve as a framework to investigate related questions on Lp-PLA(2) and cardiovascular outcomes. Methods A central database is being established containing data on circulating Lp-PLA(2) values, sex and other potential confounding factors, age at baseline Lp-PLA(2) Measurement, age at event or at last follow-up, major vascular morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information about any repeat measurements of Lp-PLA2 and potential confounding factors has been sought to allow adjustment for possible confounding and correction for regression dilution. The analyses will involve age-specific regression models. Synthesis of the available observational studies of Lp-PLA(2) will yield information on a total of about 15 000 cardiovascular disease endpoints.
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4.
  • Strong, K., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of ACE-FTS N2O measurements
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8, s. 4759-4786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), also known as SCISAT, was launched on 12 August 2003, carrying two instruments that measure vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents using the solar occultation technique. One of these instruments, the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), is measuring volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere at a vertical resolution of about 3–4 km. In this study, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 N2O data is assessed through comparisons with coincident measurements made by other satellite, balloon-borne, aircraft, and ground-based instruments. These consist of vertical profile comparisons with the SMR, MLS, and MIPAS satellite instruments, multiple aircraft flights of ASUR, and single balloon flights of SPIRALE and FIRS-2, and partial column comparisons with a network of ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometers (FTIRs). Between 6 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons lie between −42 ppbv and +17 ppbv, with most within ±20 ppbv. This corresponds to relative deviations from the mean that are within ±15%, except for comparisons with MIPAS near 30 km, for which they are as large as 22.5%. Between 18 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons are generally within ±10 ppbv. From 30 to 60 km, the mean absolute differences are within ±4 ppbv, and are mostly between −2 and +1 ppbv. Given the small N2O VMR in this region, the relative deviations from the mean are therefore large at these altitudes, with most suggesting a negative bias in the ACE-FTS data between 30 and 50 km. In the comparisons with the FTIRs, the mean relative differences between the ACE-FTS and FTIR partial columns (which cover a mean altitude range of 14 to 27 km) are within ±5.6% for eleven of the twelve contributing stations. This mean relative difference is negative at ten stations, suggesting a small negative bias in the ACE-FTS partial columns over the altitude regions compared. Excellent correlation (R=0.964) is observed between the ACE-FTS and FTIR partial columns, with a slope of 1.01 and an intercept of −0.20 on the line fitted to the data.
5.
  • McLinden, C. A., et al. (författare)
  • OSIRIS:
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society -. - 0003-0007. ; 93:12, s. 1845-1863
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
6.
  • Jin, J.J., et al. (författare)
  • Co-located ACE-FTS and Odin/SMR stratospheric-mesospheric CO 2004 measurements and comparison with a GCM
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - 0094-8276. ; 32:15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents a comparison of co-located and near simultaneous CO measurements from January to May, 2004 and from the Arctic to southern polar regions using the ACE-FTS, in solar occultation mode, and the Odin/SMR, which measures atmospheric emission. We find that there is excellent agreement between the two instruments at the locations investigated over 4 orders of magnitude from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere. There is also good agreement with the CMAM model simulation from 20 km to 90 km in sub-tropical and tropical latitudes but poorer agreement in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere in winter polar regions. For the Arctic in March 2004 this can be attributed, at least partly, to the unique dynamical processes in the stratosphere in the winter of 2003 - 2004. Clearly CO measurements from these instruments will provide a useful tool for testing model transport from the troposphere to the thermosphere.
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7.
  • Jin, J.J., et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of CMAM simulations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) with observations from Odin/SMR, ACE-FTS, and Aura/MLS
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 9, s. 3233-3252
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulations of CO, N2O and CH4 from a coupled chemistry-climate model (CMAM) are compared with satellite measurements from Odin Sub-Millimeter Radiometer (Odin/SMR), Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura/MLS). Pressure-latitude cross-sections and seasonal time series demonstrate that CMAM reproduces the observed global CO, N2O, and CH4 distributions quite well. Generally, excellent agreement with measurements is found between CO simulations and observations in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Differences between the simulations and the ACE-FTS observations are generally within 30%, and the differences between CMAM results and SMR and MLS observations are slightly larger. These differences are comparable with the difference between the instruments in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. Comparisons of N2O show that CMAM results are usually within 15% of the measurements in the lower and middle stratosphere, and the observations are close to each other. However, the standard version of CMAM has a low N2O bias in the upper stratosphere. The CMAM CH4 distribution also reproduces the observations in the lower stratosphere, but has a similar but smaller negative bias in the upper stratosphere. The negative bias may be due to that the gravity drag is not fully resolved in the model. The simulated polar CO evolution in the Arctic and Antarctic agrees with the ACE and MLS observations. CO measurements from 2006 show evidence of enhanced descent of air from the mesosphere into the stratosphere in the Arctic after strong stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs). CMAM also shows strong descent of air after SSWs. In the tropics, CMAM captures the annual oscillation in the lower stratosphere and the semiannual oscillations at the stratopause and mesopause seen in Aura/MLS CO and N2O observations and in Odin/SMR N2O observations. The Odin/SMR and Aura/MLS N2O observations also show a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the upper stratosphere, whereas, the CMAM does not have QBO included. This study confirms that CMAM is able to simulate middle atmospheric transport processes reasonably well.
8.
  • Nassar, R., et al. (författare)
  • A global inventory of stratospheric chlorine in 2004
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - 0148-0227. ; 111:22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Total chlorine (CITOT) in the stratosphere has been determined using the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements of HCl, ClONO2, CH3Cl, CCl4, CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHClF2 (HCFC-22), CCl2FCClF2 (CFC-113), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b), COClF, and ClO supplemented by data from several other sources, including both measurements and models. Separate chlorine inventories were carried out in five latitude zones (60°-82°N, 30°-60°N, 30°S-30°N, 30°-60°S, and 60°-82°S), averaging the period of February 2004 to January 2005 inclusive, when possible, to deal with seasonal variations. The effect of diurnal variation was avoided by only using measurements taken at local sunset. Mean stratospheric ClTOT values of 3.65 ppbv were determined for both the northern and southern midlatitudes (with an estimated 1σ, accuracy of ±0.13 ppbv and a precision of ±.09 ppbv), accompanied by a slightly lower value in the tropics and slightly higher values at high latitudes. Stratospheric ClTOT profiles in all five latitude zones are nearly linear with a slight positive slope in ppbv /km. Both the observed slopes and pattern of latitudinal variation can be interpreted as evidence of the beginning of a decline in global stratospheric chlorine, which is qualitatively consistent with the mean stratospheric circulation pattern and time lag necessary for transport.
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