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Sökning: WFRF:(Moran Anthony P.)

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1.
  • Aabenhus, Rune, et al. (författare)
  • Lectin Typing of Campylobacter concisus
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Microbiology. - American Society for Microbiology. - 0095-1137. ; 40:2, s. 715-717
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible.
2.
  • Hynes, Sean, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative chemical and biological characterization of the lipopolysaccharides of gastric and enterohepatic helicobacters
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Helicobacter. - Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1083-4389. ; 9:4, s. 313-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The lipopolysaccharide of Helicobacter pylori plays an important role in colonization and pathogenicity. The present study sought to compare structural and biological features of lipopolysaccharides from gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. not previously characterized.Materials and methods. Purified lipopolysaccharides from four gastric Helicobacter spp. (H. pylori, Helicobacter felis, Helicobacter bizzozeronii and Helicobacter mustelae) and four enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. (Helicobacter hepaticus, Helicobacter bilis, Helicobacter sp. flexispira and Helicobacter pullorum) were structurally characterized using electrophoretic, serological and chemical methods.Results. Structural insights into all three moieties of the lipopolysaccharides, i.e. lipid A, core and O-polysaccharide chains, were gained. All species expressed lipopolysaccharides bearing an O-polysaccharide chain, but H. mustelae and H. hepaticus produced truncated semirough lipopolysaccharides. However, in contrast to lipopolysaccharides of H. pylori and H. mustelae, no blood group mimicry was detected in the other Helicobacter spp. examined. Intra-species, but not interspecies, fatty acid profiles of lipopolysaccharides were identical within the genus. Although shared lipopolysaccharide-core epitopes with H. pylori occurred, differing structural characteristics were noted in this lipopolysaccharide region of some Helicobacter spp. The lipopolysaccharides of the gastric helicobacters, H. bizzozeronii and H. mustelae, had relative Limulus amoebocyte lysate activities which clustered around that of H. pylori lipopolysaccharide, whereas H. bilis, Helicobacter sp. flexispira and H. hepaticus formed a cluster with approximately 100010,000-fold lower activities. H. pullorum lipopolysaccharide had the highest relative Limulus amoebocyte lysate activity of all the helicobacter lipopolysaccharides (10-fold higher than that of H. pylori lipopolysaccharide), and all the lipopolysaccharides of enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. were capable of inducing nuclear factor-Kappa B(NF-B) activation.Conclusions. The collective results demonstrate the structural heterogeneity and pathogenic potential of lipopolysaccharides of the Helicobacter genus as a group and these differences in lipopolysaccharides may be indicative of adaptation of the bacteria to different ecological niches.
3.
  • Ripke, Stephan, et al. (författare)
  • Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 511:7510, s. 421-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.
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4.
  • Hynes, Sean, et al. (författare)
  • Differentiation of Helicobacter pylori isolates based on lectin binding of cell extracts in an agglutination assay
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Microbiology. - American Society for Microbiology. - 0095-1137. ; 37:6, s. 1994-1998
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant and animal lectins with various carbohydrate specificities were used to type 35 Irish clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori and the type strain NCTC 11637 in a microtiter plate assay. Initially, a panel of eight lectins with the indicated primary specificities were used: Anguilla anguilla (AAA), Lotus tetragonolobus (Lotus A), and Ulex europaeus I (UEA I), specific for -L-fucose; Solanum tuberosum (STA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), specific for -N-acetylglucosamine; Glycine max (SBA), specific for -N-acetylgalactosamine; Erythrina cristagali (ECA), specific for -galactose and -N-acetylgalactosamine; and Lens culinaris (LCA), specific for -mannose and -glucose. Three of the lectins (SBA, STA, and LCA) were not useful in aiding in strain discrimination. An optimized panel of five lectins (AAA, ECA, Lotus A, UEA I, and WGA) grouped all 36 strains tested into eight lectin reaction patterns. For optimal typing, pretreatment by washing bacteria with a low-pH buffer to allow protein release, followed by proteolytic degradation to eliminate autoagglutination, was used. Lectin types of treated samples were stable and reproducible. No strain proved to be untypeable by this system. Electrophoretic and immunoblotting analyses of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) indicated that the lectins interact primarily, but not solely, with the O side chain of H. pylori LPS.
5.
  • Hynes, Sean O, et al. (författare)
  • Phenotypic variation of Helicobacter pylori isolates from geographically distinct regions detected by lectin typing.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: J Clin Microbiol. - 0095-1137. ; 40:1, s. 227-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A total of 309 Helicobacter pylori isolates from 18 different countries were analyzed with a previously developed lectin typing system. The system was developed by using a proteolytic pretreatment to enhance the carbohydrate fraction of the sample. Four lectins from Ulex europaeus, Lotus tetragonolobus, Erythrina cristigali, and Triticum vulgaris were used to type the strains. The lectins were chosen for their specificities for sugars commonly encountered in the lipopolysaccharide of H. pylori. The isolates were received from their parent institutions as pellets of biomass and were typed at one of three centers (in Ireland, Sweden, and Estonia). All 16 possible lectin reaction patterns were observed in the study, with the isolates with the predominant pattern exhibiting reactions with all the lectins in the panel. For European patients suffering from gastritis, an association was noted between lectin reaction pattern MH4 and atrophic chronic gastritis; isolates with lectin reaction pattern MH4 were isolated from patients with atrophic chronic gastritis, whereas isolates with this pattern were not isolated from patients with chronic gastritis (P = 0.0006). In addition, statistically significant relationships were noted between the lectin reaction pattern and the associated pathology of isolates from the Swedish population. Isolates with patterns MH13 and MH16, which had low lectin reactivities, correlated with nonulcer disease (P = 0.0025 and P = 0.0002, respectively), and all four isolates from adenocarcinoma patients were characterized as possessing reaction pattern MH16. In contrast, isolates with lectin reaction patterns MH1 and MH10, which had high lectin reactivities, were associated with ulcer disease (P = 0.046 and P = 0.0022, respectively).
6.
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7.
  • Kirby, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations causing medullary cystic kidney disease type 1 lie in a large VNTR in MUC1 missed by massively parallel sequencing
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 45:3, s. 299-303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although genetic lesions responsible for some mendelian disorders can be rapidly discovered through massively parallel sequencing of whole genomes or exomes, not all diseases readily yield to such efforts. We describe the illustrative case of the simple mendelian disorder medullary cystic kidney disease type 1 (MCKD1), mapped more than a decade ago to a 2-Mb region on chromosome 1. Ultimately, only by cloning, capillary sequencing and de novo assembly did we find that each of six families with MCKD1 harbors an equivalent but apparently independently arising mutation in sequence markedly under-represented in massively parallel sequencing data: the insertion of a single cytosine in one copy (but a different copy in each family) of the repeat unit comprising the extremely long (similar to 1.5-5 kb), GC-rich (>80%) coding variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequence in the MUC1 gene encoding mucin 1. These results provide a cautionary tale about the challenges in identifying the genes responsible for mendelian, let alone more complex, disorders through massively parallel sequencing.
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8.
  • Nilsson, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • An enzymatic ruler modulates Lewis antigen glycosylation of Helicobacter pylori LPS during persistent infection
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424. ; 103:8, s. 2863-2868
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Helicobacter pylori persistently colonizes about half the human population and contributes to the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This organism has evolved means to structurally alter its surface characteristics to evade innate and adaptive immune responses. H. pylori produces LPS O-antigen units that can be posttranslationally fucosylated to generate Lewis antigens, structures also found on human epithelial cells. We demonstrate an extensive diversity of Lewis x and Lewis y expression in LPS O-antigen units, occurring over time and in different regions of the human stomach. Lewis expression patterns were correlated with the on/off status of the three fucosyltransferases (FucT), FutA, FutB, and FutC, which are regulated via slipped-strand mispairing in intragenic polyC tract regions of the corresponding genes. The alpha1,3-FucT, FutA and FutB, each contain a C-terminal heptad repeat region, consisting of a variable number of DD/NLRV/INY tandem repeats. Variations in the number of heptad repeats correlated to the sizes of O-antigen polymers to become decorated by fucose residues. Our data support a molecular ruler mechanism for how H. pylori varies its LPS fucosylation pattern, where one heptad repeat in the enzyme corresponds to one N-acetyl-beta-lactosamine unit in the O-antigen polysaccharide.
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9.
  • Nilsson, Hans-Olof, et al. (författare)
  • High prevalence of Helicobacter Species detected in laboratory mouse strains by multiplex PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Microbiology. - American Society for Microbiology. - 0095-1137. ; 42:8, s. 3781-3788
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rodent models have been developed to study the pathogenesis of diseases caused by Helicobacter pylori, as well as by other gastric and intestinal Helicobacter spp., but some murine enteric Helicobacter spp. cause hepatobiliary and intestinal tract diseases in specific inbred strains of laboratory mice. To identify these murine Helicobacter spp., we developed an assay based on PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing. Nine strains of mice, maintained in four conventional laboratory animal houses, were assessed for Helicobacter sp. carriage. Tissue samples from the liver, stomach, and small intestine, as well as feces and blood, were collected; and all specimens (n = 210) were screened by a Helicobacter genus-specific PCR. Positive samples were identified to the species level by multiplex denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, pyrosequencing, and a H. ganmani-specific PCR assay. Histologic examination of 30 tissue samples from 18 animals was performed. All mice of eight of the nine strains tested were Helicobacter genus positive; H. bilis, H. hepaticus, H. typhlonius, H. ganmani, H. rodentium, and a Helicobacter sp. flexispira-like organism were identified. Helicobacter DNA was common in fecal (86%) and gastric tissue (55%) specimens, whereas samples of liver tissue (21%), small intestine tissue (17%), and blood (14%) were less commonly positive. Several mouse strains were colonized with more than one Helicobacter spp. Most tissue specimens analyzed showed no signs of inflammation; however, in one strain of mice, hepatitis was diagnosed in livers positive for H. hepaticus, and in another strain, gastric colonization by H. typhlonius was associated with gastritis. The diagnostic setup developed was efficient at identifying most murine Helicobacter spp.
10.
  • Taneera, Jalal, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of activated charcoal, porcine gastric mucin and beta-cyclodextrin on the morphology and growth of intestinal and gastric Helicobacter spp.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Microbiology. - Society for General Microbiology. - 1350-0872. ; 148:3, s. 677-684
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bile-tolerant Helicobacter spp. are emerging human and animal pathogens. However, due to their fastidious nature, which requires nutrient-rich complex media to grow, infection with these bacteria may be underestimated. The accumulation of toxic metabolites in cultures may be one of the main obstacles for successful culture of these organisms. The present study examined various potential growth-enhancing substances for Helicobacter spp. and, furthermore, how they may affect spiral to coccoid conversion. Five Helicobacter spp. were cultured on agar and in broth media supplemented with activated charcoal, beta-cyclodextrin, or porcine gastric mucin. Growth was determined by estimating the numbers of colony-forming units and colony diameter, as well as bacterial cell mass. Coccoid transformation was estimated every 24 h by both Gram and acridine-orange staining. Activated charcoal was superior in supporting growth and increased cell mass on agar and in broth media. beta-Cyclodextrin delayed spiral to coccoid conversion by Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter canis, whereas activated charcoal delayed the conversion to coccoid forms of Helicobacter hepaticus and Helicobacter bilis. The progression to coccoid forms by Helicobacter pullorum on agar media was not influenced by any growth supplement. The spiral to coccoid conversion was more rapid in broth media than on agar media. The growth enhancement observed is probably related to the capacity of activated charcoal to remove toxic compounds in culture media.
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