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Sökning: WFRF:(Murtagh Donal P. 1959 ) > (2008) > Chalmers tekniska högskola

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  • Clerbaux, C., et al. (författare)
  • CO measurements from the ACE-FTS satellite instrument: data analysis and validation using ground-based, airborne and spaceborne observations
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8, s. 2569-2594
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) mission was launched in August 2003 to sound the atmosphere by solar occultation. Carbon monoxide (CO), a good tracer of pollution plumes and atmospheric dynamics, is one of the key species provided by the primary instrument, the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). This instrument performs measurements in both the CO 1-0 and 2-0 ro-vibrational bands, from which vertically resolved CO concentration profiles are retrieved, from the mid-troposphere to the thermosphere. This paper presents an updated description of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 CO data product, along with a comprehensive validation of these profiles using available observations (February 2004 to December 2006). We have compared the CO partial columns with ground-based measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and millimeter wave radiometry, and the volume mixing ratio profiles with airborne (both high-altitude balloon flight and airplane) observations. CO satellite observations provided by nadir-looking instruments (MOPITT and TES) as well as limb-viewing remote sensors (MIPAS, SMR and MLS) were also compared with the ACE-FTS CO products. We show that the ACE-FTS measurements provide CO profiles with small retrieval errors (better than 5% from the upper troposphere to 40 km, and better than 10% above). These observations agree well with the correlative measurements, considering the rather loose coincidence criteria in some cases. Based on the validation exercise we assess the following uncertainties to the ACE-FTS measurement data: better than 15% in the upper troposphere (8–12 km), than 30% in the lower stratosphere (12–30 km), and than 25% from 30 to 100 km.
  • Kerzenmacher, T., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of NO2 and NO from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8:19, s. 5801
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vertical profiles of NO2 and NO have been obtained from solar occultation measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), using an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and (for NO2) an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation). In this paper, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO version 1.2 NO2 data are assessed using other solar occultation measurements (HALOE, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, SCIAMACHY), stellar occultation measurements (GOMOS), limb measurements (MIPAS, OSIRIS), nadir measurements (SCIAMACHY), balloon-borne measurements (SPIRALE, SAOZ) and ground-based measurements (UV-VIS, FTIR). Time differences between the comparison measurements were reduced using either a tight coincidence criterion, or where possible, chemical box models. ACE-FTS NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO NO2 are generally consistent with the correlative data. The ACE-FTS and MAESTRO NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles agree with the profiles from other satellite data sets to within about 20% between 25 and 40 km, with the exception of MIPAS ESA (for ACE-FTS) and SAGE II (for ACE-FTS (sunrise) and MAESTRO) and suggest a negative bias between 23 and 40 km of about 10%. MAESTRO reports larger VMR values than the ACE-FTS. In comparisons with HALOE, ACE-FTS NO VMRs typically (on average) agree to ±8% from 22 to 64 km and to +10% from 93 to 105 km, with maxima of 21% and 36%, respectively. Partial column comparisons for NO2 show that there is quite good agreement between the ACE instruments and the FTIRs, with a mean difference of +7.3% for ACE-FTS and +12.8% for MAESTRO.
  • Strong, K., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of ACE-FTS N2O measurements
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8, s. 4759-4786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), also known as SCISAT, was launched on 12 August 2003, carrying two instruments that measure vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents using the solar occultation technique. One of these instruments, the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), is measuring volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere at a vertical resolution of about 3–4 km. In this study, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 N2O data is assessed through comparisons with coincident measurements made by other satellite, balloon-borne, aircraft, and ground-based instruments. These consist of vertical profile comparisons with the SMR, MLS, and MIPAS satellite instruments, multiple aircraft flights of ASUR, and single balloon flights of SPIRALE and FIRS-2, and partial column comparisons with a network of ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometers (FTIRs). Between 6 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons lie between −42 ppbv and +17 ppbv, with most within ±20 ppbv. This corresponds to relative deviations from the mean that are within ±15%, except for comparisons with MIPAS near 30 km, for which they are as large as 22.5%. Between 18 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons are generally within ±10 ppbv. From 30 to 60 km, the mean absolute differences are within ±4 ppbv, and are mostly between −2 and +1 ppbv. Given the small N2O VMR in this region, the relative deviations from the mean are therefore large at these altitudes, with most suggesting a negative bias in the ACE-FTS data between 30 and 50 km. In the comparisons with the FTIRs, the mean relative differences between the ACE-FTS and FTIR partial columns (which cover a mean altitude range of 14 to 27 km) are within ±5.6% for eleven of the twelve contributing stations. This mean relative difference is negative at ten stations, suggesting a small negative bias in the ACE-FTS partial columns over the altitude regions compared. Excellent correlation (R=0.964) is observed between the ACE-FTS and FTIR partial columns, with a slope of 1.01 and an intercept of −0.20 on the line fitted to the data.
  • Wolff, M.A., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of HNO3, ClONO2 and N2O5 from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS)
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8:13, s. 3529-3562
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite was launched on 12 August 2003. Its two instruments measure vertical profiles of over 30 atmospheric trace gases by analyzing solar occultation spectra in the ultraviolet/visible and infrared wavelength regions. The reservoir gases HNO3, ClONO2, and N2O5 are three of the key species provided by the primary instrument, the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). This paper describes the ACE-FTS version 2.2 data products, including the N2O5 update, for the three species and presents validation comparisons with available observations. We have compared volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of HNO3, ClONO2, and N2O5 with measurements by other satellite instruments (SMR, MLS, MIPAS), aircraft measurements (ASUR), and single balloon-flights (SPIRALE, FIRS-2). Partial columns of HNO3 and ClONO2 were also compared with measurements by ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. Overall the quality of the ACE-FTS v2.2 HNO3 VMR profiles is good from 18 to 35 km. For the statistical satellite comparisons, the mean absolute differences are generally within ±1 ppbv ±20%) from 18 to 35 km. For MIPAS and MLS comparisons only, mean relative differences lie within±10% between 10 and 36 km. ACE-FTS HNO3 partial columns (~15–30 km) show a slight negative bias of −1.3% relative to the ground-based FTIRs at latitudes ranging from 77.8° S–76.5° N. Good agreement between ACE-FTS ClONO2 and MIPAS, using the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung and Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IMK-IAA) data processor is seen. Mean absolute differences are typically within ±0.01 ppbv between 16 and 27 km and less than +0.09 ppbv between 27 and 34 km. The ClONO2 partial column comparisons show varying degrees of agreement, depending on the location and the quality of the FTIR measurements. Good agreement was found for the comparisons with the midlatitude Jungfraujoch partial columns for which the mean relative difference is 4.7%. ACE-FTS N2O5 has a low bias relative to MIPAS IMK-IAA, reaching −0.25 ppbv at the altitude of the N2O5 maximum (around 30 km). Mean absolute differences at lower altitudes (16–27 km) are typically −0.05 ppbv for MIPAS nighttime and ±0.02 ppbv for MIPAS daytime measurements.
  • Jégou, F., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of Odin/SMR limb observations of ozone, comparisons with OSIRIS, POAM III, ground-based and balloon-borne intruments
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8:13, s. 3385-3409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Odin satellite carries two instruments capable of determining stratospheric ozone profiles by limb sounding: the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) and the UV-visible spectrograph of the OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System) instrument. A large number of ozone profiles measurements were performed during six years from November 2001 to present. This ozone dataset is here used to make quantitative comparisons with satellite measurements in order to assess the quality of the Odin/SMR ozone measurements. In a first step, we compare Swedish SMR retrievals version 2.1, French SMR ozone retrievals version 222 (both from the 501.8 GHz band), and the OSIRIS retrievals version 3.0, with the operational version 4.0 ozone product from POAM III (Polar Ozone Atmospheric Measurement). In a second step, we refine the Odin/SMR validation by comparisons with ground-based instruments and balloon-borne observations. We use observations carried out within the framework of the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) and balloon flight missions conducted by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de l\'{}Environnement (LPCE, Orléans, France), and the Service d'Aéronomie (SA, Paris, France). Coincidence criteria were 5° in latitude×10° in longitude, and 5 h in time in Odin/POAM III comparisons, 12 h in Odin/NDACC comparisons, and 72 h in Odin/balloons comparisons. An agreement is found with the POAM III experiment (10–60 km) within −0.3±0.2 ppmv (bias±standard deviation) for SMR (v222, v2.1) and within −0.5±0.2 ppmv for OSIRIS (v3.0). Odin ozone mixing ratio products are systematically slightly lower than the POAM III data and show an ozone maximum lower by 1–5 km in altitude. The comparisons with the NDACC data (10–34 km for ozonesonde, 10–50 km for lidar, 10–60 for microwave instruments) yield a good agreement within −0.15±0.3 ppmv for the SMR data and −0.3±0.3 ppmv for the OSIRIS data. Finally the comparisons with instruments on large balloons (10–31 km) show a good agreement, within −0.7±1 ppmv. The official SMR v2.1 dataset is consistent in all altitude ranges with POAM III, NDACC and large balloon-borne instruments measurements. In the SMR v2.1 data, no different systematic error has been found in the 0–35km range in comparison with the 35–60 km range. The same feature has been highlighted in both hemispheres in SMR v2.1/POAM III intercomparisons, and no latitudinal dependence has been revealed in SMR v2.1/NDACC intercomparisons.
  • Brohede, Samuel, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Odin stratospheric proxy NOy measurements and climatology
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8:19, s. 5731-5754
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Five years of OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System) NO2 and SMR (Sub-millimetre and Millimetre Radiometer) HNO3 observations from the Odin satellite, combined with data from a photochemical box model, have been used to construct a stratospheric proxy NOy data set including the gases: NO, NO2, HNO3, 2×N2O5 and ClONO2. This Odin NOy climatology is based on all daytime measurements and contains monthly mean and standard deviation, expressed as mixing ratio or number density, as function of latitude or equivalent latitude (5° bins) on 17 vertical layers (altitude, pressure or potential temperature) between 14 and 46 km. Comparisons with coincident NOy profiles from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) instrument were used to evaluate several methods to combine Odin observations with model data. This comparison indicates that the most appropriate merging technique uses OSIRIS measurements of NO2, scaled with model NO/NO2 ratios, to estimate NO. The sum of 2×N2O5 and ClONO2 is estimated from uncertainty-based weighted averages of scaled observations of SMR HNO3 and OSIRIS NO2. Comparisons with ACE-FTS suggest the precision (random error) and accuracy (systematic error) of Odin NOy profiles are about 15% and 20%, respectively. Further comparisons between Odin and the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) show agreement to within 20% and 2 ppb throughout most of the stratosphere except in the polar vortices. The combination of good temporal and spatial coverage, a relatively long data record, and good accuracy and precision make this a valuable NOy product for various atmospheric studies and model assessments.
  • Ekström, Mattias, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of satellite limb-sounding humidity climatologies of the uppermost tropical troposphere
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8:2, s. 309-320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Humidity climatologies of the tropical uppermost troposphere from satellite limb emission measurements have been compared. Four instruments are considered; UARS-MLS, Odin-SMR, and Aura-MLS operating in the microwave region, and MIPAS in the infrared region. A reference for the comparison is obtained by MOZAIC in-situ measurements. The upper tropospheric humidity products were compared on basis of their empirical probability density functions and seasonally averaged horizontal fields at two altitude layers, 12 and 15 km. The probability density functions of the microwave datasets were found to be in very good agreement with each other, and were also consistent with MOZAIC. The average seasonal humidities differ with less than 10%RHi between the instruments, indicating that stated measurement accuracies of 20–30% are conservative estimates. The systematic uncertainty in Odin-SMR data due to cloud correction was also independently estimated to be 10%RHi. MIPAS humidity profiles were found to suffer from cloud contamination, with only 30% of the measurements reaching into the upper troposphere, but under clear-sky conditions there is a good agreement between MIPAS, Odin-SMR and Aura-MLS. Odin-SMR and the two MLS datasets can be treated as independent, being based on different underlying spectroscopy and technology. The good agreement between the microwave limb-sounders, and MOZAIC, is therefore an important step towards understanding the upper tropospheric humidity. The found accuracy of 10%RHi is approaching the level required to validate climate modelling of the upper troposphere humidity. The comparison of microwave and infrared also stresses that microwave limb-sounding is necessary for a complete view of the upper troposphere.
  • Eriksson, Patrick, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison between early Odin-SMR, Aura MLS and CloudSat retrievals of cloud ice mass in the upper tropical troposphere
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8:7, s. 1937-1948
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Emerging microwave satellite techniques are expected to provide improved global measurements of cloud ice mass. CloudSat, Aura MLS and Odin-SMR fall into this category and early cloud ice retrievals from these instruments are compared. The comparison follows the SMR retrieval product and is made for partial ice water columns above 12 km. None of the retrievals shows a significant degree of false cloud detections, the ratio between local mean values from the instruments is fairly constant and a consistent view of the geographical distribution of cloud ice is obtained. However, important differences on the absolute levels exist, where the overall mean is 9.6, 4.2 and 3.7 g m−2 for CloudSat, SMR and MLS, respectively. Assumptions about the particle size distribution (PSD) are a consideration for all three instruments and constitute the dominating retrieval uncertainty for CloudSat. The mean for CloudSat when applying the same PSD as for MLS and SMR was estimated to 6.3 g m−2. A second main consideration for MLS and SMR are the effects caused by the poorer spatial resolution: a possible vertical misplacement of retrieved values and an impact of cloud inhomogeneities. The latter effect was found to be the dominating retrieval uncertainty for SMR, giving a possible mean value range of 2.3–8.9 g m−2. The comparison indicates a common retrieval accuracy in the order of 70%. Already this number should suffice for improved validations of cloud ice parametrisation schemes in atmospheric models, but a substantially better consistency between the datasets should be attainable through an increased understanding of main retrieval error sources.
  • Khosrawi, F., et al. (författare)
  • Seasonal cycle of averages of nitrous oxide and ozone in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere polar, midlatitude, and tropical regions derived from ILAS/ILAS-II and Odin/SMR observations
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227. ; 113:D18, s. D18305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Northern and Southern Hemispheric monthly averages of ozone (O-3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been suggested as a tool for evaluating atmospheric photochemical models. An adequate data set for such an evaluation can be derived from measurements made by satellites which, in general, have a high spatial and temporal coverage. Here, we use measurements made by the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometers (ILAS and ILAS-II) which use the solar occultation technique and by the Odin-Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (Odin/SMR) which passively observes thermal emissions from the Earth's limb. From ILAS/ILAS-II and Odin/SMR observations, 1-year data sets of monthly averaged O-3 and N2O, covering a full seasonal cycle, were derived for the latitude range between 60 - 90 degrees N and 60 - 90 degrees S, respectively, by partitioning the data into equal bins of altitude or potential temperature. A comparison between both data sets in this latitude region shows a good agreement and verifies that limited sampling from satellite occultation experiments does not constitute a problem for deriving such a full seasonal cycle of monthly averaged N2O and O-3. Since Odin/SMR provides measurements globally, a 1-year data set of monthly averaged N2O and O-3 is reported here for both the entire Northern and Southern Hemispheres from these measurements. Further, these hemispheric data sets from Odin/SMR are separated into data sets of monthly averaged N2O and O-3 for the low latitudes, midlatitudes, and high latitudes. The resulting families of curves help to differentiate between O-3 changes due to photochemistry from those due to transport. These 1-year hemispheric data sets of monthly averaged N2O and O-3 from Odin/SMR and ILAS/ILAS-II as well as the data sets of monthly averaged N2O and O-3 for the specific latitude regions from Odin/SMR provide a potentially important tool for the evaluation of atmospheric photochemical models. An example of how such an evaluation can be performed is given using data from two chemical transport models (CTMs), the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) and the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA). We find a good agreement between Odin/SMR and the CTMs CLaMS and KASIMA with differences generally less than +/- 20%.
  • Rösevall, John, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • A study of ozone depletion in the 2004/2005 Arctic winter based on data from Odin/SMR and Aura/MLS
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - 0148-0227. ; 113:D13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ozone depletion in the colder than average 2004/2005 Arctic polar vortex is mapped and quantified using ozone profiles from two limb sounding satellite instruments, the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura/MLS) and the Odin Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (Odin/SMR). Profiles of chemically inert nitrous oxide (N(2)O) are used to trace vertical transport during the winter. Two methods are used for estimating the vortex average ozone losses north of 67 degrees equivalent latitude. In a first step, the time evolution of ozone mixing ratios is described on N(2)O isopleths. Maximum ozone depletion is found on the 100 ppbv and 150 ppbv N(2)O isopleths (located in the 430-460 K potential temperature range in mid-March 2005) where vortex average ozone depletion totalled 1.0-1.1 ppmv for Aura/MLS and 0.7-0.9 ppmv for Odin/SMR. Second, ozone profiles from Aura/MLS and Odin/SMR are assimilated into the DIAMOND isentropic transport model. Ozone depletion is estimated by comparing assimilated fields to ozone fields passively transported from 1 January. On the 450 K potential temperature level, the Aura/MLS ozone fields indicate 0.9-1.3 ppmv vortex-averaged ozone depletion while the Odin/SMR fields indicate 0.6-0.9 ppmv depletion. The uncertainty depends mainly on the rates of cross-isentropic transport used in the study. The ozone depletion estimates in this study are lower than previously published estimates. The discrepancies to some studies can be attributed to the more adequate treatment of an ozone poor region that is found in the central polar vortex in the early winter.
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