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Sökning: WFRF:(Nickson T.)

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1.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: An MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 23:4, s. 932-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions. In BD, cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, temporal and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. BD had the strongest effects on left pars opercularis (Cohen's d='0.293; P=1.71 × 10 '21), left fusiform gyrus (d='0.288; P=8.25 × 10 '21) and left rostral middle frontal cortex (d='0.276; P=2.99 × 10 '19). Longer duration of illness (after accounting for age at the time of scanning) was associated with reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal and occipital regions. We found that several commonly prescribed medications, including lithium, antiepileptic and antipsychotic treatment showed significant associations with cortical thickness and surface area, even after accounting for patients who received multiple medications. We found evidence of reduced cortical surface area associated with a history of psychosis but no associations with mood state at the time of scanning. Our analysis revealed previously undetected associations and provides an extensive analysis of potential confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of BD. © 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Hibar, D. P., et al. (författare)
  • Subcortical volumetric abnormalities in bipolar disorder
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 21:12, s. 1710-1716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Considerable uncertainty exists about the defining brain changes associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Understanding and quantifying the sources of uncertainty can help generate novel clinical hypotheses about etiology and assist in the development of biomarkers for indexing disease progression and prognosis. Here we were interested in quantifying case-control differences in intracranial volume (ICV) and each of eight subcortical brain measures: nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, lateral ventricles. In a large study of 1710 BD patients and 2594 healthy controls, we found consistent volumetric reductions in BD patients for mean hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.232; P=3.50 × 10 -7) and thalamus (d=-0.148; P=4.27 × 10 -3) and enlarged lateral ventricles (d=-0.260; P=3.93 × 10 -5) in patients. No significant effect of age at illness onset was detected. Stratifying patients based on clinical subtype (BD type I or type II) revealed that BDI patients had significantly larger lateral ventricles and smaller hippocampus and amygdala than controls. However, when comparing BDI and BDII patients directly, we did not detect any significant differences in brain volume. This likely represents similar etiology between BD subtype classifications. Exploratory analyses revealed significantly larger thalamic volumes in patients taking lithium compared with patients not taking lithium. We detected no significant differences between BDII patients and controls in the largest such comparison to date. Findings in this study should be interpreted with caution and with careful consideration of the limitations inherent to meta-analyzed neuroimaging comparisons. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.
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4.
  • Mahanta, C., et al. (författare)
  • Hydrogeochemical controls on mobilization of arsenic in groundwater of a part of Brahmaputra river floodplain, India
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies. - 2214-5818.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Study region: Arsenic enriched groundwater regime within low-industrialized Brahmaputra floodplains in Assam, NE India. Study focus: We examined the origin, distribution and processes of As release by investigating the salient groundwater chemistry and subsurface sedimentological characteristics. Besides collection of groundwater samples from domestic and public water supply wells, sediment samples from boreholes were investigated for textural and colour linkages. New hydrological insights for the region: Arsenic concentrations above the WHO guideline value of 10. μg/L were present in 33 wells and above the previous Indian national drinking standard of 50. μg/L were present in 15 wells. The green-olive colour sediments were more likely to yield As-enriched groundwater. The supersaturation of groundwater with respect to Fe(II) minerals, such as siderite and vivianite, explained the poor correlation between dissolved As and Fe. The result reinforced the phenomenon of reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxyhydroxides releasing As to groundwater. This study throws light on the processes and mechanisms involved with As release in groundwater. The homogenous floodplain terrain makes the hydrological As imprint unambiguous and the hydrogeological signatures untarnished. Considering the absence of anthropogenic sources in the study area, the conclusions on the nature and causes for As release to groundwater looked dependable although the final contamination at specific subsurface sites would be influenced by advection-dispersion of groundwater flow accompanied by retardation, ion exchange, surface complexation and possible biodegradation.
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