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1.
  • Acciari, V. A., et al. (författare)
  • Radio Imaging of the Very-High-Energy gamma-Ray Emission Region in the Central Engine of a Radio Galaxy
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 325:5939, s. 444-448
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The accretion of matter onto a massive black hole is believed to feed the relativistic plasma jets found in many active galactic nuclei (AGN). Although some AGN accelerate particles to energies exceeding 10(12) electron volts and are bright sources of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission, it is not yet known where the VHE emission originates. Here we report on radio and VHE observations of the radio galaxy Messier 87, revealing a period of extremely strong VHE gamma-ray flares accompanied by a strong increase of the radio flux from its nucleus. These results imply that charged particles are accelerated to very high energies in the immediate vicinity of the black hole.
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2.
  • Schael, S., et al. (författare)
  • Electroweak measurements in electron positron collisions at W-boson-pair energies at LEP
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Reports. - Elsevier. - 0370-1573. ; 532:4, s. 119-244
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the electron positron collider LEP at CERN from 1995 to 2000 are reported. The combined data set considered in this report corresponds to a total luminosity of about 3 fb(-1) collected by the four LEP experiments ALEPH, DELPHI, 13 and OPAL, at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 130 GeV to 209 GeV. Combining the published results of the four LEP experiments, the measurements include total and differential cross-sections in photon-pair, fermion-pair and four-fermion production, the latter resulting from both double-resonant WW and ZZ production as well as singly resonant production. Total and differential cross-sections are measured precisely, providing a stringent test of the Standard Model at centre-of-mass energies never explored before in electron positron collisions. Final-state interaction effects in four-fermion production, such as those arising from colour reconnection and Bose Einstein correlations between the two W decay systems arising in WW production, are searched for and upper limits on the strength of possible effects are obtained. The data are used to determine fundamental properties of the W boson and the electroweak theory. Among others, the mass and width of the W boson, m(w) and Gamma(w), the branching fraction of W decays to hadrons, B(W -> had), and the trilinear gauge-boson self-couplings g(1)(Z), K-gamma and lambda(gamma), are determined to be: m(w) = 80.376 +/- 0.033 GeV Gamma(w) = 2.195 +/- 0.083 GeV B(W -> had) = 67.41 +/- 0.27% g(1)(Z) = 0.984(-0.020)(+0.018) K-gamma - 0.982 +/- 0.042 lambda(gamma) = 0.022 +/- 0.019. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Aggarwal, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Photon and eta production in p plus Pb and p plus C collisions at root(NN)-N-S=17.4 GeV
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Physics, Section A. - Elsevier. - 0375-9474. ; 898, s. 14-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements of direct photon production in p + Pb and p + C collisions at root(NN)-N-s = 17.4 GeV are presented. Upper limits on the direct photon yield as a function of p(T) are derived and compared to the results for Pb + Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-s = 17.3 GeV. The production of the eta meson, which is an important input to the direct photon signal extraction, has been determined in the eta -> 2 gamma channel for p + C collisions at root(NN)-N-s = 17.4 GeV. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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4.
  • Aggarwal, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Pion freeze-out time in Pb plus Pb collisions at 158 AGeV/c studied via pi(-)/pi(+) and K-/K+ ratios
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 48:2, s. 343-352
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of the final state Coulomb interaction on particles produced in Pb + Pb collisions at 158AGeV/c has been investigated in the WA98 experiment through the study of the pi(-)/pi(+) and K-/K+ ratios measured as a function of T-m- (m)0. While the ratio for kaons shows no significant T-m dependence, the pi(-)/pi(+) ratio is enhanced at small T-m - (m)0 values with an enhancement that increases with centrality. A silicon pad detector located near the target is used to estimate the contribution of hyperon decays to the pi(-)/pi(+) ratio. The comparison of results with predictions of the RQMD model in which the Coulomb interaction has been incorporated allows to place constraints on the time of the pion freeze-out.
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5.
  • Aggarwal, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Suppression of high-p(T) neutral pion production in central Pb+Pb collisions at root s(NN)=17.3 GeV relative to p+C and p+Pb collisions
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - American Physical Society. - 1079-7114 .- 0031-9007. ; 100:24, s. 242301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutral pion transverse momentum spectra were measured in p+C and p+Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 17.4 GeV at midrapidity (2.3 less than or similar to eta(lab)less than or similar to 3.0) over the range 0.7 less than or similar to p(T)less than or similar to 3.5 GeV/c. The spectra are compared to pi(0) spectra measured in Pb+Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 17.3 GeV in the same experiment. For a wide range of Pb+Pb centralities (N-part less than or similar to 300), the yield of pi(0)'s with p(T)greater than or similar to 2 GeV/c is larger than or consistent with the p+C or p+Pb yields scaled with the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions (N-coll), while for central Pb+Pb collisions with N-part greater than or similar to 350, the pi(0) yield is suppressed.
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6.
  • Bécoulet, A., et al. (författare)
  • Science and technology research and development in support to ITER and the Broader Approach at CEA
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515. ; 53:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented.
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7.
  • Aggarwal, M. M., et al. (författare)
  • Event-by-event charged-neutral fluctuations in Pb plus Pb collisions at 158 A GeV
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 701:3, s. 300-305
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Charged particles and photons have been measured in central Pb + Pb collisions at 158 A GeV in a common (eta-phi)-phase space region in the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS. The measured distributions have been analyzed to quantify the frequency with which phase space regions of varying sizes have either small or large neutral pion fraction. The measured results are compared with VENUS model simulated events and with mixed events. Events with both large and small charged-neutral fluctuations are observed to occur more frequently than expected statistically, as deduced from mixed events, or as predicted by model simulations, with the difference becoming more prominent with decreasing size of the A Delta eta-Delta phi region. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Ehret, Georg B., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-4687 .- 0028-0836. ; 478:7367, s. 103-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Blood pressure is a heritable trait(1) influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>= 140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >= 90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)(2). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events(3). This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
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9.
  • Hibar, DP, et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
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10.
  • Newton-Cheh, Christopher, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies eight loci associated with blood pressure
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036. ; 41:6, s. 666-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated blood pressure is a common, heritable cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. To date, identification of common genetic variants influencing blood pressure has proven challenging. We tested 2.5 million genotyped and imputed SNPs for association with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 34,433 subjects of European ancestry from the Global BPgen consortium and followed up findings with direct genotyping (N <= 71,225 European ancestry, N <= 12,889 Indian Asian ancestry) and in silico comparison (CHARGE consortium, N 29,136). We identified association between systolic or diastolic blood pressure and common variants in eight regions near the CYP17A1 (P = 7 x 10(-24)), CYP1A2 (P = 1 x 10(-23)), FGF5 (P = 1 x 10(-21)), SH2B3 (P = 3 x 10(-18)), MTHFR (P = 2 x 10(-13)), c10orf107 (P = 1 x 10(-9)), ZNF652 (P = 5 x 10(-9)) and PLCD3 (P = 1 x 10(-8)) genes. All variants associated with continuous blood pressure were associated with dichotomous hypertension. These associations between common variants and blood pressure and hypertension offer mechanistic insights into the regulation of blood pressure and may point to novel targets for interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease.
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