Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Notholt J.) ;mspu:(article)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Notholt J.) > Tidskriftsartikel

  • Resultat 1-10 av 12
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
  • Kerzenmacher, T., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of NO2 and NO from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8:19, s. 5801
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vertical profiles of NO2 and NO have been obtained from solar occultation measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), using an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and (for NO2) an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectrometer, MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation). In this paper, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO version 1.2 NO2 data are assessed using other solar occultation measurements (HALOE, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, SCIAMACHY), stellar occultation measurements (GOMOS), limb measurements (MIPAS, OSIRIS), nadir measurements (SCIAMACHY), balloon-borne measurements (SPIRALE, SAOZ) and ground-based measurements (UV-VIS, FTIR). Time differences between the comparison measurements were reduced using either a tight coincidence criterion, or where possible, chemical box models. ACE-FTS NO2 and NO and the MAESTRO NO2 are generally consistent with the correlative data. The ACE-FTS and MAESTRO NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles agree with the profiles from other satellite data sets to within about 20% between 25 and 40 km, with the exception of MIPAS ESA (for ACE-FTS) and SAGE II (for ACE-FTS (sunrise) and MAESTRO) and suggest a negative bias between 23 and 40 km of about 10%. MAESTRO reports larger VMR values than the ACE-FTS. In comparisons with HALOE, ACE-FTS NO VMRs typically (on average) agree to ±8% from 22 to 64 km and to +10% from 93 to 105 km, with maxima of 21% and 36%, respectively. Partial column comparisons for NO2 show that there is quite good agreement between the ACE instruments and the FTIRs, with a mean difference of +7.3% for ACE-FTS and +12.8% for MAESTRO.
  • Strong, K., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of ACE-FTS N2O measurements
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8, s. 4759-4786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), also known as SCISAT, was launched on 12 August 2003, carrying two instruments that measure vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents using the solar occultation technique. One of these instruments, the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), is measuring volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere at a vertical resolution of about 3–4 km. In this study, the quality of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 N2O data is assessed through comparisons with coincident measurements made by other satellite, balloon-borne, aircraft, and ground-based instruments. These consist of vertical profile comparisons with the SMR, MLS, and MIPAS satellite instruments, multiple aircraft flights of ASUR, and single balloon flights of SPIRALE and FIRS-2, and partial column comparisons with a network of ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometers (FTIRs). Between 6 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons lie between −42 ppbv and +17 ppbv, with most within ±20 ppbv. This corresponds to relative deviations from the mean that are within ±15%, except for comparisons with MIPAS near 30 km, for which they are as large as 22.5%. Between 18 and 30 km, the mean absolute differences for the satellite comparisons are generally within ±10 ppbv. From 30 to 60 km, the mean absolute differences are within ±4 ppbv, and are mostly between −2 and +1 ppbv. Given the small N2O VMR in this region, the relative deviations from the mean are therefore large at these altitudes, with most suggesting a negative bias in the ACE-FTS data between 30 and 50 km. In the comparisons with the FTIRs, the mean relative differences between the ACE-FTS and FTIR partial columns (which cover a mean altitude range of 14 to 27 km) are within ±5.6% for eleven of the twelve contributing stations. This mean relative difference is negative at ten stations, suggesting a small negative bias in the ACE-FTS partial columns over the altitude regions compared. Excellent correlation (R=0.964) is observed between the ACE-FTS and FTIR partial columns, with a slope of 1.01 and an intercept of −0.20 on the line fitted to the data.
  • Kuttippurath, J., et al. (författare)
  • Intercomparison of ozone profile measurements from ASUR, SCIAMACHY, MIPAS, OSIRIS, and SMR
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - 0148-0227. ; 112:D9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The airborne submillimeter radiometer ( ASUR) was deployed onboard the Falcon research aircraft during the scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric cartography ( SCIAMACHY) validation and utilization experiment ( SCIAVALUE) and the European polar stratospheric cloud and lee wave experiment ( EuPLEx) campaigns. A large number of ozone profile measurements were performed over a latitude band spanning from 5 degrees S to 80 degrees N in September 2002 and February/March 2003 during the SCIAVALUE and around the northern polar latitudes in January/February 2003 during the EuPLEx. Both missions amassed an ample microwave ozone profile data set that is used to make quantitative comparisons with satellite measurements in order to assess the quality of the satellite retrievals. In this paper, the ASUR ozone profile measurements are compared with measurements from SCIAMACHY and Michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding ( MIPAS) on Environmental Satellite and optical spectrograph and infrared imager system ( OSIRIS) and submillimeter radiometer ( SMR) on the Odin satellite. The cross comparisons with the criterion that the ASUR measurements are performed within +/- 1000 km and +/- 6 hrs of the satellite observations show a good agreement with all the four satellite sensors. The differences in data values are the following: -4 to +8% for ASUR-SCIAMACHY ( operational product, v2.1), within +/- 15% for ASUR-SCIAMACHY ( scientific product, v1.62), up to +6% for ASUR-MIPAS ( operational product v4.61) and ASUR- MIPAS ( scientific product v1-O(3)-1), up to 17% for ASUR- OSIRIS ( v012), and -6 to 17% for ASUR- SMR ( v222) between the 20- and 40- km altitude range depending on latitude. Thus, the intercomparisons provide important quantitative information about the quality of the satellite ozone profiles, which has to be considered when using the data for scientific analyses.
  • Angelbratt, Jon, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) and ethane (C2H6) trends from ground-based solar FTIR measurements at six European stations, comparison and sensitivity analysis with the EMEP model
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 11:17, s. 9253-9269
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Trends in the CO and C(2)H(6) partial columns (similar to 0-15 km) have been estimated from four European ground-based solar FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) stations for the 1996-2006 time period. The CO trends from the four stations Jungfraujoch, Zugspitze, Harestua and Kiruna have been estimated to -0.45 +/- 0.16%yr(-1), -1.00 +/- 0.24%yr(-1), -0.62 +/- 0.19%yr(-1) and -0.61 +/- 0.16%yr(-1), respectively. The corresponding trends for C(2)H(6) are -1.51 +/- 0.23%yr(-1), -2.11 +/- 0.30%yr(-1), -1.09 +/- 0.25%yr(-1) and -1.14 +/- 0.18%yr(-1). All trends are presented with their 2-sigma confidence intervals. To find possible reasons for the CO trends, the global-scale EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model has been used in a series of sensitivity scenarios. It is shown that the trends are consistent with the combination of a 20% decrease in the anthropogenic CO emissions seen in Europe and North America during the 1996-2006 period and a 20% increase in the anthropogenic CO emissions in East Asia, during the same time period. The possible impacts of CH(4) and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are also considered. The European and global-scale EMEP models have been evaluated against the measured CO and C(2)H(6) partial columns from Jungfraujoch, Zugspitze, Bremen, Harestua, Kiruna and Ny-Alesund. The European model reproduces, on average the measurements at the different sites fairly well and within 10-22% deviation for CO and 14-31% deviation for C(2)H(6). Their seasonal amplitude is captured within 6-35% and 9-124% for CO and C(2)H(6), respectively. However, 61-98% of the CO and C(2)H(6) partial columns in the European model are shown to arise from the boundary conditions, making the global-scale model a more suitable alternative when modeling these two species. In the evaluation of the global model the average partial columns for 2006 are shown to be within 1-9% and 37-50% of the measurements for CO and C(2)H(6), respectively. The global model sensitivity for assumptions made in this paper is also analyzed.
  • de Laat, A. T. J., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of five years (2003-2007) of SCIAMACHY CO total column measurements using ground-based spectrometer observations
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - 1867-1381. ; 3:5, s. 1457-1471
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents a validation study of SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column measurements from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm using ground-based spectrometer observations from twenty surface stations for the five year time period of 2003-2007. Overall we find a good agreement between SCIAMACHY and ground-based observations for both mean values as well as seasonal variations. For high-latitude Northern Hemisphere stations absolute differences between SCIAMACHY and ground-based measurements are close to or fall within the SCIAMACHY CO 2 sigma precision of 0.2 x 10(18) molecules/cm(2) (similar to 10%) indicating that SCIAMACHY can observe CO accurately at high Northern Hemisphere latitudes. For Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude stations the validation is complicated due to the vicinity of emission sources for almost all stations, leading to higher ground-based measurements compared to SCIAMACHY CO within its typical sampling area of 8 degrees x 8 degrees. Comparisons with Northern Hemisphere mountain stations are hampered by elevation effects. After accounting for these effects, the validation provides satisfactory results. At Southern Hemisphere mid-to high latitudes SCIAMACHY is systematically lower than the ground-based measurements for 2003 and 2004, but for 2005 and later years the differences between SCIAMACHY and ground-based measurements fall within the SCIAMACHY precision. The 2003-2004 bias is consistent with previously reported results although its origin remains under investigation. No other systematic spatial or temporal biases could be identified based on the validation presented in this paper. Validation results are robust with regard to the choices of the instrument-noise error filter, sampling area, and time averaging required for the validation of SCIAMACHY CO total column measurements. Finally, our results show that the spatial coverage of the ground-based measurements available for the validation of the 2003-2007 SCIAMACHY CO columns is sub-optimal for validation purposes, and that the recent and ongoing expansion of the ground-based network by carefully selecting new locations may be very beneficial for SCIAMACHY CO and other satellite trace gas measurements validation efforts.
  • Höpfner, M., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of MIPAS ClONO2 measurements
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 7, s. 257-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Altitude profiles of ClONO2 retrieved with the IMK (Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung) science-oriented data processor from MIPAS/Envisat (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding on Envisat) mid-infrared limb emission measurements between July 2002 and March 2004 have been validated by comparison with balloon-borne (Mark IV, FIRS2, MIPAS-B), airborne (MIPAS-STR), ground-based (Spitsbergen, Thule, Kiruna, Harestua, Jungfraujoch, Izaña, Wollongong, Lauder), and spaceborne (ACE-FTS) observations. With few exceptions we found very good agreement between these instruments and MIPAS with no evidence for any bias in most cases and altitude regions. For balloon-borne measurements typical absolute mean differences are below 0.05 ppbv over the whole altitude range from 10 to 39 km. In case of ACE-FTS observations mean differences are below 0.03 ppbv for observations below 26 km. Above this altitude the comparison with ACE-FTS is affected by the photochemically induced diurnal variation of ClONO2. Correction for this by use of a chemical transport model led to an overcompensation of the photochemical effect by up to 0.1 ppbv at altitudes of 30–35 km in case of MIPAS-ACE-FTS comparisons while for the balloon-borne observations no such inconsistency has been detected. The comparison of MIPAS derived total column amounts with ground-based observations revealed no significant bias in the MIPAS data. Mean differences between MIPAS and FTIR column abundances are 0.11±0.12×1014 cm−2 (1.0±1.1%) and −0.09±0.19×1014 cm−2 (−0.8±1.7%), depending on the coincidence criterion applied. χ2 tests have been performed to assess the combined precision estimates of MIPAS and the related instruments. When no exact coincidences were available as in case of MIPAS – FTIR or MIPAS – ACE-FTS comparisons it has been necessary to take into consideration a coincidence error term to account for χ2 deviations. From the resulting χ2 profiles there is no evidence for a systematic over/underestimation of the MIPAS random error analysis.
  • Kleinböhl, A., et al. (författare)
  • Constraints for the photolysis rate and the equilibrium constant of ClO-dimer from airborne and balloon-borne measurements of chlorine compounds
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - 0148-0227. - 2169-8996 ; 119:11, s. 6916
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyze measurements of ClO across the terminator taken by the Airborne Submillimeter Radiometer (ASUR) in the activated vortices of the Arctic winters of 1995/1996, 1996/1997, and 1999/2000 to evaluate the plausibility of various determinations of the ClO-dimer photolysis cross section and the rate constant controlling the thermal equilibrium between ClO-dimer and ClO. We use measured ClO during sunlit conditions to estimate total active chlorine (ClOx). As the measurements suggest nearly full chlorine activation in winter 1999/2000, we compare ClOx estimates based on various photolysis frequencies of ClO-dimer with total available inorganic chlorine (Cly), estimated from an N2O-Cly correlation established by a balloon-borne MkIV interferometer measurement. Only ClO-dimer cross sections leading to the fastest photolysis frequencies in the literature (including the latest evaluation by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory) give ClOx mixing ratios that overlap with the estimated range of available Cly. Slower photolysis rates lead to ClOx values that are higher than available Cly. We use the ClOx calculated from sunlit ClO measurements to estimate ClO in darkness based on different equilibrium constants, and compare it with ASUR ClO measurements before sunrise at high solar zenith angles. Calculations with equilibrium constants published in recent evaluations of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory give good agreement with observed ClO mixing ratios. Equilibrium constants leading to a higher ClO/ClOx ratio in darkness yield ClO values that tend to exceed observed abundances. Perturbing the rates for the ClO + BrO reaction in a manner that increases OClO formation and decreases BrCl formation leads to lower ClO values calculated for twilight conditions after sunset, resulting in better agreement with ASUR measurements.
  • Vigouroux, C., et al. (författare)
  • Trends of ozone total columns and vertical distribution from FTIR observations at eight NDACC stations around the globe
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 15:6, s. 2915-2933
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements of solar absorption spectra can provide ozone total columns with a precision of 2% but also independent partial column amounts in about four vertical layers, one in the troposphere and three in the stratosphere up to about 45 km, with a precision of 5-6 %. We use eight of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) stations having a long-term time series of FTIR ozone measurements to study the total and vertical ozone trends and variability, namely, Ny-Alesund (79 degrees N), Thule (77 degrees N), Kiruna (68 degrees N), Harestua (60 degrees N), Jungfraujoch (47 degrees N), Izana (28 degrees N), Wollongong (34 degrees S) and Lauder (45 degrees S). The length of the FTIR time series varies by station but is typically from about 1995 to present. We applied to the monthly means of the ozone total and four partial columns a stepwise multiple regression model including the following proxies: solar cycle, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic and Antarctic Oscillation (AO/AAO), tropopause pressure (TP), equivalent latitude (EL), Eliassen-Palm flux (EPF), and volume of polar stratospheric clouds (VPSC). At the Arctic stations, the trends are found mostly negative in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, very mixed in the middle stratosphere, positive in the upper stratosphere due to a large increase in the 1995-2003 period, and non-significant when considering the total columns. The trends for mid-latitude and subtropical stations are all non-significant, except at Lauder in the troposphere and upper stratosphere and at Wollongong for the total columns and the lower and middle stratospheric columns where they are found positive. At Jungfraujoch, the upper stratospheric trend is close to significance (+0.9 +/- 1.0% decade(-1)). Therefore, some signs of the onset of ozone mid-latitude recovery are observed only in the Southern Hemisphere, while a few more years seem to be needed to observe it at the northern mid-latitude station.
  • Yurganov, L.N., et al. (författare)
  • A Quantitative Assessment of the 1998 Carbon Monoxide Emission Anomaly in the Northern Hemisphere Based on Total Column and Surface Concentration Measurements
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. - 0148-0227. ; 109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carbon monoxide abundances in the atmosphere have been measured between January 1996 and December 2001 in the high Northern Hemisphere (HNH) (30degrees-90degreesN) using two different approaches: total column amounts of CO retrieved from infrared solar spectra and CO mixing ratios measured in situ at ground-based stations. The data were averaged, and anomalies of the CO HNH burden ( deviations of the total tropospheric mass between 30degreesN and 90degreesN from the mean seasonal profile, determined as the 5 year average) were analyzed. The anomalies obtained from in situ and total column data agree well and both show two maxima, by far the largest in October 1998 and a lower one in August 1996. A noticeable decrease of the positive 1998 summer anomaly with increasing height was found. A box model was applied, and anomalies in source rates were obtained under the assumption of insignificant interannual sink variations. In August 1998 the HNH emission anomaly was estimated to be 38 Tg month(-1). The annual 1998 emission positive anomaly was 96 Tg yr(-1). Nearly all excess CO may be attributed to the emissions from boreal forest fires. According to available inventories, biomass burning emits around 52 Tg yr(-1) during the "normal'' years; therefore total biomass emissions in 1998 were as large as 148 Tg yr(-1). In August 1998, CO contribution from the biomass burning was twice as large as that from fossil fuel combustion. The results were compared to available emission inventories.
  • Gardiner, T., et al. (författare)
  • Trend analysis of greenhouse gases over Europe measured by a network of ground-based remote FTIR instruments
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8:22, s. 6719-6727
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes the statistical analysis of annual trends in long term datasets of greenhouse gas measurements taken over ten or more years. The analysis technique employs a bootstrap resampling method to determine both the long-term and intra-annual variability of the datasets, together with the uncertainties on the trend values. The method has been applied to data from a European network of ground-based solar FTIR instruments to determine the trends in the tropospheric, stratospheric and total columns of ozone, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane and HCFC-22. The suitability of the method has been demonstrated through statistical validation of the technique, and comparison with ground-based in-situ measurements and 3-D atmospheric models.
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-10 av 12
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy