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Sökning: WFRF:(O'Dowd C.) > Engelska > (2015-2017)

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1.
  • Kiendler-Scharr, A., et al. (författare)
  • Ubiquity of organic nitrates from nighttime chemistry in the European submicron aerosol
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Geophysical Research Letters. - American Geophysical Union. - 0094-8276. ; 43:14, s. 7735-7744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the atmosphere nighttime removal of volatile organic compounds is initiated to a large extent by reaction with the nitrate radical (NO3) forming organic nitrates which partition between gas and particulate phase. Here we show based on particle phase measurements performed at a suburban site in the Netherlands that organic nitrates contribute substantially to particulate nitrate and organic mass. Comparisons with a chemistry transport model indicate that most of the measured particulate organic nitrates are formed by NO3 oxidation. Using aerosol composition data from three intensive observation periods at numerous measurement sites across Europe, we conclude that organic nitrates are a considerable fraction of fine particulate matter (PM1) at the continental scale. Organic nitrates represent 34% to 44% of measured submicron aerosol nitrate and are found at all urban and rural sites, implying a substantial potential of PM reduction by NOx emission control.
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2.
  • Paramonov, M., et al. (författare)
  • A synthesis of cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) measurements within the EUCAARI network
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh. - 1680-7324. ; 15:21, s. 12211-12229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) measurements performed at 14 locations around the world within the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) framework have been analysed and discussed with respect to the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation and hygroscopic properties of the atmospheric aerosol. The annual mean ratio of activated cloud condensation nuclei (N-CCN) to the total number concentration of particles (N-CN), known as the activated fraction A, shows a similar functional dependence on supersaturation S at many locations - exceptions to this being certain marine locations, a free troposphere site and background sites in south-west Germany and northern Finland. The use of total number concentration of particles above 50 and 100 nm diameter when calculating the activated fractions (A(50) and A(100), respectively) renders a much more stable dependence of A on S; A(50) and A(100) also reveal the effect of the size distribution on CCN activation. With respect to chemical composition, it was found that the hygroscopicity of aerosol particles as a function of size differs among locations. The hygroscopicity parameter kappa decreased with an increasing size at a continental site in south-west Germany and fluctuated without any particular size dependence across the observed size range in the remote tropical North Atlantic and rural central Hungary. At all other locations kappa increased with size. In fact, in Hyytiala, Vavihill, Jungfraujoch and Pallas the difference in hygroscopicity between Aitken and accumulation mode aerosol was statistically significant at the 5% significance level. In a boreal environment the assumption of a size-independent kappa can lead to a potentially substantial overestimation of N-CCN at S levels above 0.6 %. The same is true for other locations where kappa was found to increase with size. While detailed information about aerosol hygroscopicity can significantly improve the prediction of N-CCN, total aerosol number concentration and aerosol size distribution remain more important parameters. The seasonal and diurnal patterns of CCN activation and hygroscopic properties vary among three long-term locations, highlighting the spatial and temporal variability of potential aerosol-cloud interactions in various environments.
3.
  • Dall' Osto, M., et al. (författare)
  • Arctic sea ice melt leads to atmospheric new particle formation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and growth significantly influences climate by supplying new seeds for cloud condensation and brightness. Currently, there is a lack of understanding of whether and how marine biota emissions affect aerosol-cloud-climate interactions in the Arctic. Here, the aerosol population was categorised via cluster analysis of aerosol size distributions taken at Mt Zeppelin (Svalbard) during a 11 year record. The daily temporal occurrence of NPF events likely caused by nucleation in the polar marine boundary layer was quantified annually as 18%, with a peak of 51% during summer months. Air mass trajectory analysis and atmospheric nitrogen and sulphur tracers link these frequent nucleation events to biogenic precursors released by open water and melting sea ice regions. The occurrence of such events across a full decade was anti-correlated with sea ice extent. New particles originating from open water and open pack ice increased the cloud condensation nuclei concentration background by at least ca. 20%, supporting a marine biosphere-climate link through sea ice melt and low altitude clouds that may have contributed to accelerate Arctic warming. Our results prompt a better representation of biogenic aerosol sources in Arctic climate models.
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4.
  • Alastuey, Andres, et al. (författare)
  • Geochemistry of PM10 over Europe during the EMEP intensive measurement periods in summer 2012 and winter 2013
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 16:10, s. 6107-6129
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The third intensive measurement period (IMP) organised by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) under the UNECE CLTRAP took place in summer 2012 and winter 2013, with PM10 filter samples concurrently collected at 20 (16 EMEP) regional background sites across Europe for subsequent analysis of their mineral dust content. All samples were analysed by the same or a comparable methodology. Higher PM10 mineral dust loadings were observed at most sites in summer (0.5-10aEuro-A mu gaEuro-m(-3)) compared to winter (0.2-2aEuro-A mu gaEuro-m(-3)), with the most elevated concentrations in the southern- and easternmost countries, accounting for 20-40aEuro-% of PM10. Saharan dust outbreaks were responsible for the high summer dust loadings at western and central European sites, whereas regional or local sources explained the elevated concentrations observed at eastern sites. The eastern Mediterranean sites experienced elevated levels due to African dust outbreaks during both summer and winter. The mineral dust composition varied more in winter than in summer, with a higher relative contribution of anthropogenic dust during the former period. A relatively high contribution of K from non-mineral and non-sea-salt sources, such as biomass burning, was evident in winter at some of the central and eastern European sites. The spatial distribution of some components and metals reveals the influence of specific anthropogenic sources on a regional scale: shipping emissions (V, Ni, and SO42-) in the Mediterranean region, metallurgy (Cr, Ni, and Mn) in central and eastern Europe, high temperature processes (As, Pb, and SO42-) in eastern countries, and traffic (Cu) at sites affected by emissions from nearby cities.
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