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Sökning: WFRF:(Oelhaf H.)

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  • Wang, D.Y., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of nitric acid retrieved by the IMK-IAA processor from MIPAS/ENVISAT measurements
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 7, s. 721-738
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) onboard the ENVISAT satellite provides profiles of temperature and various trace-gases from limb-viewing mid-infrared emission measurements. The stratospheric nitric acid (HNO3) from September 2002 to March 2004 was retrieved from the MIPAS observations using the science-oriented data processor developed at the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK), which is complemented by the component of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) treatment from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA). The IMK-IAA research product, different from the ESA operational product, is validated in this paper by comparison with a number of reference data sets. Individual HNO3 profiles of the IMK-IAA MIPAS show good agreement with those of the balloon-borne version of MIPAS (MIPAS-B) and the infrared spectrometer MkIV, with small differences of less than 0.5 ppbv throughout the entire altitude range up to about 38 km, and below 0.2 ppbv above 30 km. However, the degree of consistency is largely affected by their temporal and spatial coincidence, and differences of 1 to 2 ppbv may be observed between 22 and 26 km at high latitudes near the vortex boundary, due to large horizontal inhomogeneity of HNO3. Statistical comparisons of MIPAS IMK-IAA HNO3 VMRs with respect to those of satellite measurements of Odin/SMR, ILAS-II, ACE-FTS, as well as the MIPAS ESA product show good consistency. The mean differences are generally ±0.5 ppbv and standard deviations of the differences are of 0.5 to 1.5 ppbv. The maximum differences are 2.0 ppbv around 20 to 25 km. This gives confidence in the general reliability of MIPAS HNO3 VMR data and the other three satellite data sets.
  • Khosrawi, Farahnaz, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of CFC-12 measurements from the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS)
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. ; 109:D06311
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements of CFC-12 were made by the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) between 57 N and 72 N in the Northern Hemisphere and between 64 S and 89 S in the Southern Hemisphere. ILAS was launched on 17 August 1996 on board the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS). The ILAS validation balloon campaigns were carried out from Kiruna, Sweden (68 N, 21 E), in February and March 1997 and from Fairbanks, Alaska (65 N, 148 W), in April and May 1997. During these validation balloon campaigns, CFC-12 was measured with the in situ instruments ASTRID, BONBON, and SAKURA and the remote sensing spectrometers MIPAS-B, FIRS-2, and MkIV. ILAS version 6.0 CFC-12 profiles obtained at the nearest location to the validation balloon measurement are compared with these validation balloon measurements. The quality of ILAS CFC-12 data processed with the version 6.0 algorithm improved significantly compared to previous versions. Low relative differences between ILAS CFC-12 and the correlative measurements of about 10% were found between 13 and 20 km. The comparison of vertical profiles shows that ILAS CFC-12 data are useful below about 20–22 km inside the vortex and below about 25 km outside the vortex. However, at greater altitudes the relative percentage difference increases very strongly with increasing altitude. Further, correlations of CFC-12 with N2O show a good agreement with the correlative measurements for N2O values of N2O > 150 ppbv. In summary, ILAS CFC-12 data are now suitable for scientific studies in the lower stratosphere.
  • Hopfner, M., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of MIPAS ClONO2 measurements
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 7, s. 257-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Altitude profiles of ClONO2 retrieved with the IMK (Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung) science-oriented data processor from MIPAS/Envisat (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding on Envisat) mid-infrared limb emission measurements between July 2002 and March 2004 have been validated by comparison with balloon-borne (Mark IV, FIRS2, MIPAS-B), airborne (MIPAS-STR), ground-based (Spitsbergen, Thule, Kiruna, Harestua, Jungfraujoch, Izaña, Wollongong, Lauder), and spaceborne (ACE-FTS) observations. With few exceptions we found very good agreement between these instruments and MIPAS with no evidence for any bias in most cases and altitude regions. For balloon-borne measurements typical absolute mean differences are below 0.05 ppbv over the whole altitude range from 10 to 39 km. In case of ACE-FTS observations mean differences are below 0.03 ppbv for observations below 26 km. Above this altitude the comparison with ACE-FTS is affected by the photochemically induced diurnal variation of ClONO2. Correction for this by use of a chemical transport model led to an overcompensation of the photochemical effect by up to 0.1 ppbv at altitudes of 30–35 km in case of MIPAS-ACE-FTS comparisons while for the balloon-borne observations no such inconsistency has been detected. The comparison of MIPAS derived total column amounts with ground-based observations revealed no significant bias in the MIPAS data. Mean differences between MIPAS and FTIR column abundances are 0.11±0.12×1014 cm−2 (1.0±1.1%) and −0.09±0.19×1014 cm−2 (−0.8±1.7%), depending on the coincidence criterion applied. χ2 tests have been performed to assess the combined precision estimates of MIPAS and the related instruments. When no exact coincidences were available as in case of MIPAS – FTIR or MIPAS – ACE-FTS comparisons it has been necessary to take into consideration a coincidence error term to account for χ2 deviations. From the resulting χ2 profiles there is no evidence for a systematic over/underestimation of the MIPAS random error analysis.
  • López-Puertas, M., et al. (författare)
  • Non-LTE studies for the analysis of MIPAS/ENVISAT data
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering. - 0277-786X. ; 4539, s. 381-395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is a high-resolution limb sounder on board the European polar platform ENVISAT, scheduled for launch late in 2001. Three main characteristics converge in MIPAS which make it a very useful instrument for non-LTE studies: its wide spectral coverage (4.15-14.6 μm or 680-2275 cm-1); high spectral resolution (0.03 cm-1), and high sensitivity; all of this in addition to its global spatial coverage. In this paper we present an overview of the non-LTE studies that have been carried out in preparation for the analysis of MIPAS data, including the evaluation of non-LTE effects in the operational processing, focussed in the stratosphere, and the retrieval of species that normally emit under non-LTE conditions. The current mission plan for measuring the non-LTE upper atmosphere is described, as well as the general purpose non-LTE retrieval scheme developed for analyzing those measurements.
  • Milz, Mathias, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of water vapour profiles (version 13) retrieved by the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor based on full resolution spectra measured by MIPAS on board Envisat
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - 1867-1381. ; :2, s. 379-399
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vertical profiles of stratospheric water vapour measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) with the full resolution mode between September 2002 and March 2004 and retrieved with the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor were compared to a number of independent measurements in order to estimate the bias and to validate the existing precision estimates of the MIPAS data. The estimated precision for MIPAS is 5 to 10% in the stratosphere, depending on altitude, latitude, and season. The independent instruments were: the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II), the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III) instrument, the Middle Atmospheric Water Vapour Radiometer (MIAWARA), the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, balloon-borne version (MIPAS-B), the Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System(AMSOS), the Fluorescent Stratospheric Hygrometer for Balloon (FLASH-B), the NOAA frostpoint hygrometer, and the Fast In Situ Hygrometer (FISH). For the in-situ measurements and the ground based, air- and balloon borne remote sensing instruments, the measurements are restricted to central and northern Europe. The comparisons to satellite-borne instruments are predominantly at mid- to high latitudes on both hemispheres. In the stratosphere there is no clear indicationof a bias in MIPAS data, because the independent measurements in some cases are drier and in some cases are moister than the MIPAS measurements. Compared to the infrared measurements of MIPAS, measurements in the ultraviolet and visible have a tendency to be high, whereas microwave measurements have a tendency to be low. Theresults of chi2-based precision validation are somewhat controversial among the comparison estimates. However, for comparison instruments whose error budget also includes errors due to uncertainties in spectrally interfering species and where good coincidences were found, the chi2 values found are in the expected range or even below. This suggests that there is no evidence of systematically underestimated MIPAS random errors.
  • Wetzel, G., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT H2O operational data collected between July 2002 and March 2004
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 13:11, s. 5791-5811
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Water vapour (H2O) is one of the operationally retrieved key species of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument aboard the Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) which was launched into its sun-synchronous orbit on 1 March 2002 and operated until April 2012. Within the MIPAS validation activities, independent observations from balloons, aircraft, satellites, and ground-based stations have been compared to European Space Agency (ESA) version 4.61 operational H2O data comprising the time period from July 2002 until March 2004 where MIPAS measured with full spectral resolution. No significant bias in the MIPAS H2O data is seen in the lower stratosphere (above the hygropause) between about 15 and 30 km. Differences of H2O quantities observed by MIPAS and the validation instruments are mostly well within the combined total errors in this altitude region. In the upper stratosphere (above about 30 km), a tendency towards a small positive bias (up to about 10 %) is present in the MIPAS data when compared to its balloon-borne counterpart MIPAS-B, to the satellite instruments HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment) and ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment, Fourier Transform Spectrometer), and to the millimeter-wave airborne sensor AMSOS (Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System). In the mesosphere the situation is unclear due to the occurrence of different biases when comparing HALOE and ACE-FTS data. Pronounced deviations between MIPAS and the correlative instruments occur in the lowermost stratosphere and upper troposphere, a region where retrievals of H2O are most challenging. Altogether it can be concluded that MIPAS H2O profiles yield valuable information on the vertical distribution of H2O in the stratosphere with an overall accuracy of about 10 to 30% and a precision of typically 5 to 15% - well within the predicted error budget, showing that these global and continuous data are very valuable for scientific studies. However, in the region around the tropopause retrieved MIPAS H2O profiles are less reliable, suffering from a number of obstacles such as retrieval boundary and cloud effects, sharp vertical discontinuities, and frequent horizontal gradients in both temperature and H2O volume mixing ratio (VMR). Some profiles are characterized by retrieval instabilities.
  • López-Puertas, M., et al. (författare)
  • Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium limb radiances for the mipas instrument on Envisat-1
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer. - 0022-4073. ; 59:3-5, s. 377-403
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An evaluation of the effects that the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) has on the retrieval of pressure, temperature and the five primary target gases (O3, H2O, CH4, N2O, and HNO3) from spectra to be taken by Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the Envisat-1 platform has been conducted. For doing so, non-LTE and LTE limb radiances in the spectral range of 680–2275 cm−1 (4.15–14.6 μm) with a resolution of 0.05 cm−1 at tangent heights from 10 to 70 km have been computed. These calculations included the most updated non-LTE populations of a large number of vibrational levels of the CO2, O3, H2O, CH4, N2O and HNO3 molecules which cause the most prominent atmospheric infrared emissions. A discussion of the most important non-LTE effects on the limb radiances as well as on the retrievals of pressure-temperature and volume mixing ratios of O3, H2O, CH4, N2O, and HNO3 is presented, together with the most important non-LTE issues that could be studied with the future coming of MIPAS data.
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