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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Olsen Anja) ;pers:(Allen Naomi E);pers:(Hallmans Göran)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Olsen Anja) > Allen Naomi E > Hallmans Göran

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1.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating C-reactive protein concentrations and risks of colon and rectal cancer : a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262. ; 172:4, s. 407-418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on study center, age, sex, time of blood collection, fasting status, menopausal status, menstrual cycle phase, and hormone replacement therapy. In conditional logistic regression with adjustment for education, smoking, nutritional factors, body mass index, and waist circumference, CRP showed a significant nonlinear association with colon cancer risk but not rectal cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks for CRP concentrations of > or = 3.0 mg/L versus <1.0 mg/L were 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.85; P-trend = 0.01) for colon cancer and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.57; P-trend = 0.65) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk was significantly increased in men (relative risk = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.73; P-trend = 0.01) but not in women (relative risk = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.68; P-trend = 0.13). Additional adjustment for C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not attenuate these results. These data provide evidence that elevated CRP concentrations are related to a higher risk of colon cancer but not rectal cancer, predominantly among men and independently of obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.
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2.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic syndrome and risks of colon and rectal cancer : the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). - 1940-6215. ; 4:11, s. 1873-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is purportedly related to risk of developing colorectal cancer; however, the association of MetS, as defined according to recent international criteria, and colorectal cancer has not been yet evaluated. In particular, it remains unclear to what extent the MetS components individually account for such an association. We addressed these issues in a nested case-control study that included 1,093 incident cases matched (1:1) to controls by using incidence density sampling. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the 2009 harmonized definition. Among individual components, abdominal obesity (RR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.16-1.96) was associated with colon cancer, whereas abnormal glucose metabolism was associated with both colon (RR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.57-2.68) and rectal cancer (RR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.45-2.96). MetS, as defined by each of the definitions, was similarly associated with colon cancer (e.g., RR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42 for MetS by NCEP/ATPIII), whereas MetS by NCEP/ATPIII, but not IDF or harmonized definition, was associated with rectal cancer (RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.02-2.06). Overall, these associations were stronger in women than in men. However, the association between MetS and colorectal cancer was accounted for by abdominal obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism such that MetS did not provide risk information beyond these components (likelihood ratio test P = 0.10 for MetS by NCEP/ATPIII). These data suggest that simple assessment of abnormal glucose metabolism and/or abdominal obesity to identify individuals at colorectal cancer risk may have higher clinical utility than applying more complex MetS definitions. Cancer Prev Res; 4(11); 1873-83. ©2011 AACR.
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3.
  • Boffetta, Paolo, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 102:8, s. 529-537
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cancer can be prevented by high intake of fruits and vegetables. However, inconsistent results from many studies have not been able to conclusively establish an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to assess relationships between intake of total fruits, total vegetables, and total fruits and vegetables combined and cancer risk during 1992-2000. Detailed information on the dietary habit and lifestyle variables of the cohort was obtained. Cancer incidence and mortality data were ascertained, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. Analyses were also conducted for cancers associated with tobacco and alcohol after stratification for tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: Of the initial 142 605 men and 335 873 women included in the study, 9604 men and 21 000 women were identified with cancer after a median follow-up of 8.7 years. The crude cancer incidence rates were 7.9 per 1000 person-years in men and 7.1 per 1000 person-years in women. Associations between reduced cancer risk and increased intake of total fruits and vegetables combined and total vegetables for the entire cohort were similar (200 g/d increased intake of fruits and vegetables combined, HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96 to 0.99; 100 g/d increased intake of total vegetables, HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99); intake of fruits showed a weaker inverse association (100 g/d increased intake of total fruits, HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.00). The reduced risk of cancer associated with high vegetable intake was restricted to women (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99). Stratification by alcohol intake suggested a stronger reduction in risk in heavy drinkers and was confined to cancers caused by smoking and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: A very small inverse association between intake of total fruits and vegetables and cancer risk was observed in this study. Given the small magnitude of the observed associations, caution should be applied in their interpretation.
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4.
  • Leufkens, Anke M, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers of oxidative stress and risk of developing colorectal cancer : a cohort-nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262. ; 175:7, s. 653-663
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in carcinogenesis, but prospective evidence for an association between biomarkers of oxidative stress and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is limited. The authors investigated the association between prediagnostic serum levels of oxidative stress indicators (i.e., reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)) and CRC risk. This was examined in a nested case-control study (1,064 CRC cases, 1,064 matched controls) in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2003). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression analyses. ROM were associated with overall CRC risk (highest tertile vs. lowest: adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR(adj)) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47, 2.48), proximal (IRR(adj) = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.06, 3.36) and distal (IRR(adj) = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.37, 3.89) colon cancer, and rectal cancer (IRR(adj) = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.72). When results were stratified by tertile of follow-up time, the association remained significant only in participants with less than 2.63 years of follow-up (IRR(adj) = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.78, 2.94; P-heterogeneity < 0.01). FRAP was not associated with CRC risk. In conclusion, prediagnostic serum ROM levels were associated with increased risk of CRC. However, this association was seen only in subjects with relatively short follow-up, suggesting that the association results from production of reactive oxygen species by preclinical tumors.
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6.
  • Nieters, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and lymphoma risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Oxford University Press. - 0002-9262 .- 1476-6256. ; 167:9, s. 1081-1089
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lymphomas are one of the few cancers that have been increasing in incidence over the past decades. So far, only a few established risk factors have been identified, including immunosuppression and viral infections. Recent evidence suggests etiologic heterogeneity of different lymphoma subtypes. Smoking may affect risk differently, depending on the lymphoma entity. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition was used to study the role of smoking in the etiology of lymphomas and individual subtypes within a prospective study. Information on baseline and lifetime tobacco smoking by 478,590 participants was collected between 1992 and 2000. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. During 3,567,410 person-years of follow-up, 1,371 lymphoma cases (1,304 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 67 Hodgkin's lymphomas) were identified. Relative risk for smokers at recruitment was more than twofold higher for Hodgkin's lymphoma (hazard ratio = 2.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.18, 3.87) but was not elevated for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (hazard ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.19) and individual B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes. In this prospective study, smoking appeared to increase Hodgkin's lymphoma risk consistently in both genders, whereas B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk was not associated. Future analysis should involve viral biomarkers and genetic susceptibility markers to elucidate potential mechanisms of smoking-induced carcinogenesis, particularly for Hodgkin's lymphoma.
7.
  • Nieters, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking and Lymphoma Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Am J Epidemiol. - 1476-6256.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lymphomas are one of the few cancers that have been increasing in incidence over the past decades. So far, only a few established risk factors have been identified, including immunosuppression and viral infections. Recent evidence suggests etiologic heterogeneity of different lymphoma subtypes. Smoking may affect risk differently, depending on the lymphoma entity. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition was used to study the role of smoking in the etiology of lymphomas and individual subtypes within a prospective study. Information on baseline and lifetime tobacco smoking by 478,590 participants was collected between 1992 and 2000. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. During 3,567,410 person-years of follow-up, 1,371 lymphoma cases (1,304 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 67 Hodgkin's lymphomas) were identified. Relative risk for smokers at recruitment was more than twofold higher for Hodgkin's lymphoma (hazard ratio = 2.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.18, 3.87) but was not elevated for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (hazard ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.94, 1.19) and individual B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma subtypes. In this prospective study, smoking appeared to increase Hodgkin's lymphoma risk consistently in both genders, whereas B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk was not associated. Future analysis should involve viral biomarkers and genetic susceptibility markers to elucidate potential mechanisms of smoking-induced carcinogenesis, particularly for Hodgkin's lymphoma.
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8.
  • Travis, Ruth C, et al. (författare)
  • Serum vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control analysis nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262. ; 169:10, s. 1223-1232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results from the majority of studies show little association between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk, a finding that has not been demonstrated in a wider European population, however. The authors examined whether vitamin D concentrations were associated with prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1994-2000). Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in 652 prostate cancer cases matched to 752 controls from 7 European countries after a median follow-up time of 4.1 years. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for prostate cancer risk in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D after standardizing for month of blood collection and adjusting for covariates. No significant association was found between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quintile: odds ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 1.88; P for trend = 0.188). Subgroup analyses showed no significant heterogeneity by cancer stage or grade, age at diagnosis, body mass index, time from blood collection to diagnosis, or calcium intake. In summary, the results of this large nested case-control study provide no evidence in support of a protective effect of circulating concentrations of vitamin D on the risk of prostate cancer.
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