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Sökning: WFRF:(Olsson Bengt) > (2000-2004) > (2001)

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  • Littorin, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Family characteristics and life events before the onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in young adults - A nationwide study
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992. ; 24:6, s. 1033-1037
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE - To elucidate whether family characteristics and stressful life events were associated with onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in young adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This investigation was based on a nation-wide study (Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden) of newly diagnosed patients aged 15-34 years. Patients clinically classified as type 1 diabetic with antibodies to islet cells and/or to GAD65 were compared with age- and sex-matched control subjects via questionnaire. The questionnaire covered diabetes heredity, social environment, educational level, and life events experienced during the 12 months before diagnosis. RESULTS - The rate of response was 82% for the diabetic patients and 65% for the control subjects. Questionnaires from 349 diabetic patients and 979 control subjects were considered. Diabetes in relatives was more frequent in the patients (odds ratio [OR]2.6) who were born in Sweden and whose mothers were of Swedish origin. No major stress factors were detected in the diabetic patients; however, in comparison with the control subjects, the diabetic patients had experienced fewer conflicts with their parents and had less often broken contacts with friends. CONCLUSIONS - Young adults with recent-onset type 1 diabetes were more exposed to heredity for diabetes, but no major prediabetic stress factors were detected. Our study does not directly support the concept that psychosocial stressful life events are involved in the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in young adults.
  • Törn, Carina, et al. (författare)
  • Combinations of beta cell specific autoantibodies at diagnosis of diabetes in young adults reflects different courses of beta cell damage
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Autoimmunity. - Harwood Academic. - 0891-6934. ; 33:2, s. 115-120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To explore the natural course of beta cell function in recent onset diabetes, a subgroup (n = 157) of all incident cases (n = 879) 15-34 years old. 1992-1993 in Sweden. and with positivity for at least one autoantibody of islet cell antibodies (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) or tyrosine phosphatase antibodies (1A-2A) were followed prospectively thr the first four years with annual analysis of C-peptide. The aim was to relate the course of beta cell function, measured as C-peptide, in early diabetes with the presence of different islet autoantibodies at diagnosis. We found that patients positive for ICA alone (n = 11 ) had significantly higher C-peptide levels both at diagnosis and during the first three years compared with the other patients (n = 146; p = 0.022, p < 0.001, p = 0.004 and p = 0.0022). Patients positive for GADA alone or in combination with other antibodies (n = 125) had significantly lower C-peptide during the first three years after diagnosis compared with the other patients (n = 32. p < 0.001, p = 0.0011 and p = 0.0136). Patients with two or three autoantibodies had C-peptide levels similar to levels found in patients positive only for GADA. However. after four years, there were no significant differences between any of the groups of different autoantibody combinations. At diagnosis. 55% (86/157) of the patients had C-peptide: levels above the lower normal range of 0.25 nmol/l, but the frequency of patients with beta cell Function above this level decreased after two years to 41% (65/157; p = 0.035) and after four years to 22% (35/157; p = 0.0041).
  • Evilevitch, Alex, et al. (författare)
  • Kinetics of oil solubilization in microemulsion droplets. Mechanism of oil transport.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Electroanalysis. - American Chemical Society. - 1040-0397. ; 16:23, s. 8755-8762
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have studied the kinetics of the solubilization of oil through a temperature jump into a droplet microemulsion phase in the system water-pentaethylene oxide dodecyl ether-decane at 25 C. The initial state is formed by subjecting the equilibrium system at 25 C to a temperature quench to 22, 20, and 14 C, respectively. At this lower temperature, which at equilibrium corresponds to a two-phase system, oil droplets form and grow in size with increasing time. By varying the time between the quench and the T-jump, the size of the initial oil drops is varied in a systematic and known way in the relaxation study. The relaxation process is monitored by following the turbidity of the system. We find that for all the systems the relaxation back to equlibrium is much faster than the drop growth process observed after the temperature quench. This general observation is explained by realizing that the redissolution of the oil drops is analogous to the oil transfer phase, which in the quench experiment occurs prior to the Ostwald ripening phase. More significant is that we observed a qualitative transition in the relaxation behavior when the initial aggregate distribution is varied. In all cases we have the same initial temperature and overall composition and one population of many small droplets and fewer larger drops. The size of the larger drops only affects the relaxation in a quantitative way. If the small droplets are only slightly smaller than the equilibrium size, equilibration occurs through the diffusion of oil molecules in the bulk phase. When the initial droplets are sufficiently small, a new kinetic route is available where there is an efficient direct oil transfer between the small droplets and large drops. This allows for a fast relaxation of the oil distribution between the two populations of drops.
  • Evilevitch, Alex, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular transport in a nonequilibrium droplet microemulsion system.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Langmuir. - American Chemical Society. - 0743-7463 .- 1520-5827. ; 17:22, s. 6893-6904
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper, we consider the problem of oil molecular transport between nonequilibrium microemulsion oil droplets in water. In particular, we have investigated the kinetics of solubilization of big oil drops by smaller microemulsion droplets transforming a bimodal size distribution into an equilibrium microemulsion with a unimodal size distribution. The process involves the diffusion of oil monomers across the aqueous solvent. Solubilization experiments are presented on a well-characterized nonionic microemulsion system, where interfacial area and dispersed volume are conserved and where the excess oil chemical potential is dominated by interfacial curvature energy. An analysis of the experiments shows that the solubilization kinetics depend significantly on the concentrations and sizes of big and small droplets. We formulate a quantitative model for the solubilization kinetics where the effects of size and concentrations are treated within the framework of a cell model. A quantitative agreement between model and experiment is obtained, and the analysis also shows that the majority of oil monomers are captured by small droplets already in the vicinity of the big drop surface when the concentration of small droplets is high.
  • Lif, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Workspaces enhance efficiency – theories, concepts and a case study
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Information Technology and People. - MCB UP Ltd. - 0959-3845. ; 14:3, s. 261-272
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Traditional process-oriented system development methods often result in fragmentary user interfaces with information presented in various windows without considerations of requirements for simultaneous viewing. Opening, closing, moving and resizing these windows attracts the users’ attention away from the actual work. User interface design according to the workspace metaphor could provide skilled professional users with an efficient, customised user interface to administrative information systems. This can improve work performance and facilitate efficient navigation between workspaces. A case study in co-operation with the Swedish National Tax Board (RSV) describes practical use of the workspace metaphor.
  • Linusson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Statistical Molecular Design, Parallel Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of a Library of Thrombin Inhibitors
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. ; 44:21, s. 3424-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A library of thrombin inhibitors has been designed using statistical molecular design. An aromatic scaffold was used, with three varied positions corresponding to three pockets at the active site of thrombin (the S-, P-, and D-pockets). The selection was performed in the building block space, and previously acquired data were included in the design procedure. The design resulted in six, four, and six building blocks for the first (S), second (P), and third (D) pockets, respectively. A second round of selection applied to the combined selected building blocks resulted in a subset of 18 compounds. The selected library was synthesized in parallel and biologically evaluated. The compounds were analyzed with respect to their inhibition (pIC50) of thrombin; membrane permeability, estimated by migration behavior in micellar media (CE log k') and pKa; and specificity with respect to inhibition (Ki) of trypsin. Multivariate QSAR studies of the responses yielded valuable results and information that could only be found using statistical molecular design in combination with multivariate analysis.
  • Olsson, Eric, et al. (författare)
  • The emotional climate of care-giving in home-care services
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Health & Social Care in the Community. - Blackwell Publishing. - 0966-0410 .- 1365-2524. ; 9:6, s. 454-463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The emotional aspects of the care-giving relationship in home-care services are studied, starting from the home-care recipients' and the home-care workers' perception of the emotional climate. Their experiences of the care-giving relationship and the influence from different aspects of the care-giving situation and social processes in the work organisation are explored. Two hundred and twenty-two recipients and their home-care workers in three typical Swedish municipalities were studied. The emotional climate is described with the help of a scale of 85 adjectives. Results show that home-care workers are more likely to experience the climate with a higher degree of emotionality. There is symmetry between the parties in the perception of a negative climate. However, if one party perceives the climate as close the other party is more likely to perceive it as rational or instrumental. The organisational processes, especially the group climate of the work team, principally influence the home-care recipients' perceptions. The workers' perceptions are principally influenced by age and gender of the recipients and the workers' own age. The emotional climate is constructed in a process between the parties, depending on their responses to each other. Tendencies to perceive a specific climate are strengthened or weakened by context variables and this in turn changes the care-giving interaction.
  • Olsson, Eric, et al. (författare)
  • The frail elderly, family network and public home help services : a pilot study of the parties' perception of the help and their reciprocal relationships
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Working paper-serien. - Lunds universitet : Socialhögskolan. - 91-89604-06-7 ; 2001:2
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The family with the elderly and the home help workers’ team constitute two organisations,<br /> which meet in the care work. In this context the family is extended and often constitute not<br /> only members from the nuclear family but also other members of the network of relatives,<br /> whom take part in the care of the elderly. The extended family may in some cases include<br /> four generations (Finch &amp; Mason, 1993).<br /> Home-help for elderly people have expanded in Sweden during the period 1960 - 1980.<br /> This was due partly upon the prevailing ideology that it is important for frail elderly to stay in<br /> their own homes. Due to this expansion the local communities have developed their public<br /> home-care organisations. Different kinds of autonomous group organisation predominate<br /> (Olsson et al, 1995). Small work groups take responsibility for home help service in local<br /> areas. Home-helpers organise their job themselves, exchange experiences and give each other<br /> emotional support.<br /> In Sweden both home care and institutional care of the elderly has decreased during the<br /> 1980th and 1990th in spite of the fact that the proportion elderly over 80 years (4,5 % of the<br /> total population) has increased 60 % since 1980. Twenty-two per cent of the women and 16 %<br /> of the men over 80 were cared for in their own home 1996. This development is said to have<br /> caused relatives to care for their frail elderly in the homes side by side by the home help<br /> services in an increasing degree (Johansson, 1991; Szebehely, 1998). Public care and service<br /> has an important impact on the interaction pattern between family members (Hendriksen,<br /> 1989; Johansson, 1999; Bass m fl, 1999). Home care may serve as an intervention that<br /> influences the health, well-being and life quality of the elderly and other family members.<br /> This intervention may have positive as well as negative effects. Problems and conflicts may<br /> arise in the interaction between the family members and between the family and the public<br /> help services (see McGoldrick &amp; Gerson, 1989). We need more knowledge about these<br /> processes.<br /> In a research project1 the family and the home help services are studied as two<br /> organisations, which interact in the care of the elderly. We start with the hypothesis that the<br /> relation between the parties will have an impact on the character and quality of the care. We<br /> also think that the quality of the interaction will have an impact on the health and wellbeing of<br /> the elderly (see Olsson, 1991, 1998; Olsson &amp; Ingvad, 1999).
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