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Sökning: WFRF:(Olsson Lillemor Lundin) > (2005-2009)

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11.
  • Eriksson, Staffan, 1969- (författare)
  • Falls in people with dementia
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Falls and concomitant injuries are common problems among large groups of the elderly population, leading to immobility and mortality. These problems are even more pronounced among people suffering from dementia. This thesis targets fall risk factors for people with dementia in institutions. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate risk factors for falls, predisposing as well as related to circumstances surrounding falls, and to do this as efficiently as possible.</p> <p>In a prospective cohort study including residents of residential care facilities with and without dementia, the fall rate was higher for those with dementia, the crude incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 2.55 (95% CI 1.60–4.08) and the adjusted IRR was 3.79 (95% CI 1.95–7.36). In the group of people suffering from dementia, including 103 residents, a total of 197 falls resulted in 11 fractures during the 6-months follow-up period. From the same baseline measurements 26% and 55%, respectively, of the variation in falls could be explained in the group of residents with and without dementia. Fall predictors significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of falls in the group of people suffering from dementia were the category “man walking with an aid” and the use of more than four drugs.</p> <p>In a prospective cohort study, including 204 patients in a psychogeriatric ward, a total of 244 falls resulted in 14 fractures. Fall predictors significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of falls were male sex, failure to copy a design, use of clomethiazole, and walking difficulties. Treatment with statins was associated with a reduced risk of falls. With these fall predictors in the negative binomial regression (Nbreg) model, 48% of the variation in falls was explained.</p> <p>The data from the psychogeriatric ward were also analysed with the use of partial least squares regression (PLS) and regression tree to be compared with the results of the Nbreg analysis. PLS and regression tree are techniques based on combinations of variables. They both showed similar patterns, that a combination of a more severe level of dementia, behavioral complications and medication related to these complications is associated with an increased fall rate. Thirty-two percent and 38%, respectively, of the variation in fall rate were explained in the PLS and regression tree analysis.</p> <p>The circumstances surrounding the falls in the psychogeriatric ward were analysed. It was found that the fall rate was equally high during the night and the day. A large proportion of the falls was sustained in the patients’ own room and a small proportion of the falls was witnessed by the staff. This pattern was even more pronounced during the night. The proportion of diurnal rhythm disturbances and activity disturbances was higher for falls at night than for falls during the day. Circumstances associated with an increased risk of falls, as shown by a short time to first fall, were anxiety, darkness, not wearing any shoes and, for women, urinary tract infection. The proportion of urinary tract infection was also higher in connection to falls sustained by women than to falls sustained by men.</p> <p>This thesis confirms that people suffering from dementia are prone to fall. Walking difficulties, male sex and impaired visual perception are factors that should be considered in the work of reducing falls among people suffering from dementia. Furthermore, falls at night, behavioral complications and medication related to these complications should also be considered in this work, especially as the dementia disease progresses. A larger portion of the variation of the outcome variable was explained by the Nbreg model than the regression tree and PLS. However, these statistical methods, based on combinations of variables, gave a complementary perspective on how the fall predictors were related to falls.</p>
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12.
  • Eriksson, Staffan, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for falls in people with and without a diagnosis of dementia living in residential care facilities : a prospective study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print). - 0167-4943 .- 1872-6976. ; 46:3, s. 293-306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>People with dementia are at increased risk of falling. The purpose of this study was to identify predisposing risk factors for falls in older people with and without a diagnose of dementia living in residential care facilities, and to compare the results. Eighty-three residents without dementia (mean age ± S.D.; 83.5 ± 7.1 years) and 103 with dementia (83.6 ± 6.3 years) in Umeå, Sweden, participated. The baseline assessment included probable risk factors like walking ability, diagnoses and treatment with drugs. The follow-up period was 6 months. In people with dementia, the fall rate was higher (crude incidence rate ratio 2.55, 95% CI 1.60–4.08) and a larger proportion experienced falls (62% versus 41%). In the group without dementia 54.8% of the variation in falls was explained by a model including orthostatism, “women walking with aid”, and treatment with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In the group with dementia 25.5% of the variation in falls was explained by a model including “man walking with aid”. Our results show that with the same set of common risk factors for falls a considerably lower proportion of the variation in falls can be explained in the group of people with dementia.</p>
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13.
  • Hellner, Britt Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Systematiskt arbete för äldres säkerhet : om fall, trafikolyckor och bränder
  • 2007
  • Bok (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Äldre personer är överrepresenterade i nästan alla olyckor. Förutom stort personligt lidande för individen leder skadorna ofta till omfattande kostnader för samhället. Därför har Räddningsverket och IMS/Socialstyrelsen tilsammans med forskare vid Umeå Universitet, Karlstad Universitet, Krolinska Insitutet, FoU Välfärd Örebro samt Vägverket gemensamt sammaställt denna bok. Syftet är att inspirera och vägleda ett systematiskt arbete i samhället för att öka säkerheten och minska skadorna till följd av olyckor bland äldre. Boken riktar sig till verksamma inom vård och omsorg för äldre, tjänstemän och politiker på olika nivåer i samhället</p>
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14.
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15.
  • Holmbom, Johannes, et al. (författare)
  • Motivationsekvationen : att vägleda äldre personer till fysisk aktivitet
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Fysioterapi. ; :5, s. 38-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Det finns ett tydligt samband mellan ökad ålder och minskande fysisk aktivitet, trots att aktiviteten ger hälsovinster för äldre personer på alla funktionsnivåer. Många äldre har kontakt med hälso- och sjukvården, vilket ger personalen en ypperlig möjlighet att påverka dem. För att vägleda äldre personer till fysisk aktivitet gäller det att finna faktorer som ökar motivationen och att identifiera barriärer. Motivationsekvationen, som presenteras här, är en modell som belyser sambandet mellan fyra faktorer: ”upplevd chans att lyckas” och ”upplevd betydelse av målet” i förhållande till ”upplevd kostnad” och ”benägenhet att bli stillasittande”. Samspelet mellan dem styr våra medvetna och omedvetna val när det gäller att påbörja och bibehålla olika beteenden. Faktorerna kan påverkas, direkt eller indirekt, och genom att öka de båda förstnämnda och minska de båda senare skapas hög motivation. Motivationsekvationen kan användas för att kartlägga patientens motivationsnivå. Tillsammans med det vägledande samtalet ger den möjlighet till individuellt skräddarsydda åtgärder.</p>
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16.
  • Lindemann, Ulrich, et al. (författare)
  • Maximum step length as a potential screening tool for falls in non-disabled older adults living in the community.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. - 1594-0667 .- 1720-8319. ; 20:5, s. 394-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Identification of the risk of falls in a cohort of interest is a prerequisite for a targeted fall prevention study. Motor tasks are widely used as baseline assessment in such studies, but there are only a few well-evaluated tests of motor performance to predict falls prospectively. This study was conducted to find out if the potential of the maximum step length (MSL) test can predict future falls in non-disabled older persons. METHODS: A modified version of the MSL test was used for baseline assessment in 56 community-dwelling, non-disabled elderly persons (mean age 67.7 yrs, SD 6 yrs; 57% women). During a follow-up of 1 year, falls were recorded in a daily calendar. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 30 persons (54%) fell, with no gender difference in reporting of falls between men and women. The adjusted mean valid step length and adjusted maximum valid step length were predictive of future falls with a sensitivity/specificity of 77%/62% and 70%/69%, respectively. Combining MSL test results with fall history increased sensitivity to 93% and 90%, respectively, but decreased specificity to 54% and 58%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The MSL test is a feasible tool, with low requirements in space, predicting future falls in community-dwelling older persons. In combination with history of falls, the sensitivity of the test increased considerably.</p>
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17.
  • Littbrand, Håkan, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program for older people dependent in activities of daily living and living in residential care facilities : evaluation of the applicability with focus on cognitive function
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Therapy. - 0031-9023 .- 1538-6724. ; 86:4, s. 489-498
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Knowledge concerning the applicability and the effect of high-intensity exercise programs is very limited for older people with severe cognitive and physical impairments. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program among older people who are dependent in activities of daily living and living in residential care facilities. A second aim was to analyze whether cognitive function was associated with the applicability of the program.</p> <p>SUBJECTS: The subjects were 91 older people (mean age=85.3 years, SD=6.1, range=68-100) who were dependent in personal activities of daily living and randomly assigned to participate in an exercise intervention. Their mean score for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was 17.5 (SD=5.0, range=10-29).</p> <p>METHODS: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program was performed in groups of 3 to 7 participants who were supervised by physical therapists. There were 29 exercise sessions over 13 weeks. Attendance, intensity of lower-limb strength and balance exercises, and occurrence and seriousness of adverse events were the outcome variables in evaluating the applicability of the program.</p> <p>RESULTS: The median attendance rate was 76%. Lower-limb strength exercises with high intensity were performed in a median of 53% of the attended exercise sessions, and balance exercises with high intensity were performed in a median of 73% of the attended exercise sessions. The median rate of sessions with adverse events was 5%. All except 2 adverse events were assessed as minor and temporary, and none led to manifest injury or disease. No significant differences were observed in applicability when comparing participants with dementia and participants without dementia. In addition, there was no significant correlation between applicability and the MMSE score.</p> <p>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results suggest that a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program is applicable for use, regardless of cognitive function, among older people who are dependent in activities of daily living, living in residential care facilities, and have an MMSE score of 10 or higher.</p>
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18.
  • Littbrand, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program for older people dependent in activities of daily living and living in residential care facilities : evaluation of the applicability with focus on cognitive function
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Physical Therapy. - 0031-9023 .- 1538-6724. ; 86:4, s. 489-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Knowledge concerning the applicability and the effect of high-intensity exercise programs is very limited for older people with severe cognitive and physical impairments. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program among older people who are dependent in activities of daily living and living in residential care facilities. A second aim was to analyze whether cognitive function was associated with the applicability of the program. SUBJECTS: The subjects were 91 older people (mean age=85.3 years, SD=6.1, range=68-100) who were dependent in personal activities of daily living and randomly assigned to participate in an exercise intervention. Their mean score for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was 17.5 (SD=5.0, range=10-29). METHODS: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program was performed in groups of 3 to 7 participants who were supervised by physical therapists. There were 29 exercise sessions over 13 weeks. Attendance, intensity of lower-limb strength and balance exercises, and occurrence and seriousness of adverse events were the outcome variables in evaluating the applicability of the program. RESULTS: The median attendance rate was 76%. Lower-limb strength exercises with high intensity were performed in a median of 53% of the attended exercise sessions, and balance exercises with high intensity were performed in a median of 73% of the attended exercise sessions. The median rate of sessions with adverse events was 5%. All except 2 adverse events were assessed as minor and temporary, and none led to manifest injury or disease. No significant differences were observed in applicability when comparing participants with dementia and participants without dementia. In addition, there was no significant correlation between applicability and the MMSE score. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results suggest that a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program is applicable for use, regardless of cognitive function, among older people who are dependent in activities of daily living, living in residential care facilities, and have an MMSE score of 10 or higher.</p>
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19.
  • Littbrand, Håkan, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on activities of daily living : a randomized controlled trial in residential care facilities
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 57:10, s. 1741-1749
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program reduces dependency in activities of daily living (ADLs) in older people living in residential care facilities, focusing on people with dementia. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial.</p> <p>SETTING: Nine residential care facilities.</p> <p>PARTICIPANTS: One hundred ninety-one older people dependent in ADLs and with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater. One hundred (52.4%) of the participants had dementia.</p> <p>INTERVENTION: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program or a control activity consisting of 29 sessions over 3 months.</p> <p>MEASUREMENTS: The Barthel ADL Index; follow-up at 3 months (directly after the intervention) and 6 months with intention-to-treat analyses.</p> <p>RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding overall ADL performance. Analyses for each item revealed that a smaller proportion of participants in the exercise group had deteriorated in indoor mobility at 3 months (exercise 3.5% vs control 16.0%, P=.01) and 6 months (7.7% vs 19.8%, P=.03). For people with dementia, there was a significant difference in overall ADL performance in favor of the exercise group at 3 months (mean difference 1.1, P=.03) but not at 6 months.</p> <p>CONCLUSION: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program seems to reduce ADL decline related to indoor mobility for older people living in residential care facilities. The program does not appear to have an overall effect on ADLs. In people with dementia, the exercise program may prevent decline in overall ADL performance, but continuous training may be needed to maintain that effect.</p>
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20.
  • Littbrand, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on activities of daily living : a randomized controlled trial in residential care facilities
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 57:10, s. 1741-1749
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program reduces dependency in activities of daily living (ADLs) in older people living in residential care facilities, focusing on people with dementia. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Nine residential care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred ninety-one older people dependent in ADLs and with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater. One hundred (52.4%) of the participants had dementia. INTERVENTION: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program or a control activity consisting of 29 sessions over 3 months. MEASUREMENTS: The Barthel ADL Index; follow-up at 3 months (directly after the intervention) and 6 months with intention-to-treat analyses. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding overall ADL performance. Analyses for each item revealed that a smaller proportion of participants in the exercise group had deteriorated in indoor mobility at 3 months (exercise 3.5% vs control 16.0%, P=.01) and 6 months (7.7% vs 19.8%, P=.03). For people with dementia, there was a significant difference in overall ADL performance in favor of the exercise group at 3 months (mean difference 1.1, P=.03) but not at 6 months. CONCLUSION: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program seems to reduce ADL decline related to indoor mobility for older people living in residential care facilities. The program does not appear to have an overall effect on ADLs. In people with dementia, the exercise program may prevent decline in overall ADL performance, but continuous training may be needed to maintain that effect.</p>
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