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Sökning: WFRF:(Olsson Rolf) > (2015-2019)

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  • Burmakin, Mikhail, et al. (författare)
  • Imatinib increases oxygen delivery in extracellular matrix-rich but not in matrix-poor experimental carcinoma
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Translational Medicine. - BioMed Central. - 1479-5876 .- 1479-5876. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Imatinib causes increased turnover of stromal collagen, reduces collagen fibril diameter, enhances extracellular fluid turnover and lowers interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in the human colonic carcinoma KAT-4/HT-29 (KAT-4) xenograft model. Methods: We compared the effects of imatinib on oxygen levels, vascular morphology and IFP in three experimental tumor models differing in their content of a collagenous extracellular matrix. Results: Neither the KAT4 and CT-26 colonic carcinoma models, nor B16BB melanoma expressed PDGF beta-receptors in the malignant cells. KAT-4 tumors exhibited a well-developed ECM in contrast to the other two model systems. The collagen content was substantially higher in KAT-4 than in CT-26, while collagen was not detectable in B16BB tumors. The pO(2) was on average 5.4, 13.9 and 19.3 mmHg in KAT-4, CT-26 and B16BB tumors, respectively. Treatment with imatinib resulted in similar pO(2)-levels in all three tumor models but only in KAT-4 tumors did the increase reach statistical significance. It is likely that after imatinib treatment the increase in pO(2) in KAT-4 tumors is caused by increased blood flow due to reduced vascular resistance. This notion is supported by the significant reduction observed in IFP in KAT-4 tumors after imatinib treatment. Vessel area varied between 4.5 and 7% in the three tumor models and was not affected by imatinib treatment. Imatinib had no effect on the fraction of proliferating cells, whereas the fraction of apoptotic cells increased to a similar degree in all three tumor models. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the effects of imatinib on pO(2)-levels depend on a well-developed ECM and provide further support to the suggestion that imatinib acts by causing interstitial stroma cells to produce a less dense ECM, which would in turn allow for an increased blood flow. The potential of imatinib treatment to render solid tumors more accessible to conventional treatments would therefore depend on the degree of tumor desmoplasia.
  • South, Nicholas, et al. (författare)
  • Väderradarteknik inom VA-området : Test av metodik
  • 2019
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Under sommaren 2018 gjordes försök med X-bandsteknik på Dalby vattentorn i Lunds kommun – ett pilotprojekt som är det svenska startskottet för användning av väderradar inom VA-området. Rapporten redovisar en litteraturstudie av tekniken. Den jämför uppmätta regndata mellan radaranläggningen och stationära regnmätare, gör en analys av flödes- och bräddmätning i avloppssystem vid några regntillfällen, och ger förslag på praktiska tillämpningar av X-bandstekniken
  • Arenaz Búa, Beatriz, et al. (författare)
  • The Pharyngoesophageal Segment after Total Laryngectomy
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology. - Annals Publishing Company. - 0003-4894. ; 126:2, s. 138-145
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of the present study was to characterize the pharyngoesophageal segment in laryngectomees who rated themselves as functional tracheoesophageal speakers. Methods: Voice perceptual assessment, high-resolution videomanometry of swallowing and phonation, and high-speed camera recording during phonation provided information about the anatomy and function of the pharyngoesophageal segment. Results: Fourteen patients were included in the study. The voice assessments presented high intra/inter-listener reliability. We found a significant correlation between roughness and poor voice quality, hyperfunction and poor intelligibility, and poor voice quality, long time since the operation, and old age. High-resolution videomanometry during phonation revealed decreasing mean pressures from the distal esophagus to the pharynx and confirmed low resting pressures at the pharyngoesophageal segment and low esophageal peristaltic contraction pressures after laryngectomy in comparison to normal subjects. The neoglottis shape was mainly circular and presented a strong mucosal wave in most of the patients on the high-speed camera recording. Conclusions: Perceptual voice assessment and high-speed camera recordings provided baseline information about voice characteristics and vibration regularity of the neoglottis. Additionally, the quantitative measures obtained with high-resolution videomanometry may have clinical applicability as reference data in voice rehabilitation after total laryngectomy.
  • Arenaz Bua, Beatriz, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment of cricopharyngeal dysfunction: a comparative pilot study.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Research Notes. - BioMed Central. - 1756-0500. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cricopharyngeal dysfunction is a narrowing at the level of the upper oesophageal sphincter caused by failed or incomplete sphincter opening as a result of lack of pharyngoesophageal coordination or reduction in the muscular compliance of the upper oesophageal sphincter. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a typical symptom. Videomanometry allows direct comparison of pressure readings with dynamic anatomy during swallowing.
  • Besker, Terese, et al. (författare)
  • The Enterprise Architect profession: An empirical study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: 9th European Conference on IS Management and Evaluation – ECIME 2015. - 2048-8912. - 978-1-910810-56-9 ; :38, s. 29-36
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The field of Enterprise Architecture (EA) is rapidly evolving why there is a need for increased professionalization of the discipline. Therefore, understanding the profession of the Enterprise Architects in enterprise transformation and development becomes important. However, there are very few empirically based studies which have reflected these professionals within their work domain of an every-day business. The purpose of this paper is to increase our understanding of how the Enterprise Architect’s practice their profession and in addition, to study how these professionals describe their occupation. Five different topics are of particular interest to portraying the occupation of the Enterprise Architect's profession; the role, competence, power, style of acting and main focus. The research is a descriptive study based on interviews with Enterprise Architects in ten large Swedish organizations. In conclusion, the architect is considered as a proud individualist with an entrepreneurial vein who endeavor consideration, reflection, and the guidance capability.
  • Boström, Magnus, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • Conditions for Transformative Learning for Sustainable Development A Theoretical Review and Approach
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Sustainability. - MDPI. - 2071-1050. ; 10:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Continued unsustainability and surpassed planetary boundaries require not only scientific and technological advances, but deep and enduring social and cultural changes. The purpose of this article is to contribute a theoretical approach to understand conditions and constraints for societal change towards sustainable development. In order to break with unsustainable norms, habits, practices, and structures, there is a need for learning for transformation, not only adaption. Based on a critical literature review within the field of learning for sustainable development, our approach is a development of the concept of transformative learning, by integrating three additional dimensions—Institutional Structures, Social Practices, and Conflict Perspectives. This approach acknowledges conflicts on macro, meso, and micro levels, as well as structural and cultural constraints. It contends that transformative learning is processual, interactional, long-term, and cumbersome. It takes place within existing institutions and social practices, while also transcending them. The article adopts an interdisciplinary social science perspective that acknowledges the importance of transformative learning in order for communities, organizations, and individuals to be able to deal with global sustainability problems, acknowledging the societal and personal conflicts involved in such transformation.
  • Dörk, Thilo, et al. (författare)
  • Two truncating variants in FANCC and breast cancer risk
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.
  • Holmberg, Mats, 1958-, et al. (författare)
  • Structural brain changes in hyperthyroid Graves' disease: protocol for an ongoing longitudinal, case-controlled study in Göteborg, Sweden-the CogThy project.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMJ open. - 2044-6055. ; 9:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cognitive impairment and reduced well-being are common manifestations of Graves' disease (GD). These symptoms are not only prevalent during the active phase of the disease but also often prevail for a long time after hyperthyroidism is considered cured. The pathogenic mechanisms involved in these brain-derived symptoms are currently unknown. The overall aim of the CogThy study is to identify the mechanism behind cognitive impairment to be able to recognise GD patients at risk.The study is a longitudinal, single-centre, case-controlled study conducted in Göteborg, Sweden on premenopausal women with newly diagnosed GD. The subjects are examined: at referral, at inclusion and then every 3.25 months until 15 months. Examinations include: laboratory measurements; eye evaluation; neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological testing; structural MRI of the whole brain, orbits and medial temporal lobe structures; functional near-infrared spectroscopy of the cerebral prefrontal cortex and self-assessed quality of life questionnaires. The primary outcome measure is the change in medial temporal lobe structure volume. Secondary outcome measures include neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric, hormonal and autoantibody variables. The study opened for inclusion in September 2012 and close for inclusion in October 2019. It will provide novel information on the effect of GD on medial temporal lobe structures and cerebral cortex functionality as well as whether these changes are associated with cognitive and affective impairment, hormonal levels and/or autoantibody levels. It should lead to a broader understanding of the underlying pathogenesis and future treatment perspectives.The study has been reviewed and approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Göteborg, Sweden. The results will be actively disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and among patient organisations after an appropriate embargo time.44321 at the public project database for research and development in Västra Götaland County, Sweden (https://www.researchweb.org/is/vgr/project/44321).
  • Ittner, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Recent Swedish Studies on the Extent of Blast Damage after Excavation
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents two recent studies on the extent of blast damage after excavation in crystalline rock. The Swedish Transport Administration and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) are both under regulations to limit excavation damage during construction of tunnels. SKB is also required to limit the Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ), as this could be a potential flow path for radionuclides in the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel.Presented in this paper are investigations of blast damage from three tunnel sites, a road tunnel, an experimental tunnel in Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory and an underground subway depot.As expected the fractures resulting from the bottom charge are both longer and more frequent then those mapped in the column charge. The results show that the requirement to limit blast damage according to Swedish regulations was fulfilled for the column charge at the three studied sites.
  • Lövheim, Hugo, et al. (författare)
  • Herpes Simplex Virus, APOE ɛ4, and Cognitive Decline in Old Age : Results from the Betula Cohort Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - IOS Press. - 1387-2877. ; 67:1, s. 211-220
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been suggested to play a role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) development.Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the early AD-related symptom episodic memory decline in relation to HSV and carriage of allele 4 of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE ɛ4) in a large population-based cohort with a long follow-up time.Methods: The study included 3,413 persons, with longitudinal data available for 1,293 persons with a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years. The associations between HSV carriage, APOE ɛ4 carriage, and episodic memory was investigated at baseline, as well as in longitudinal analyses where individuals with and without HSV antibodies (HSV1/2 non-specific) were matched and episodic memory decline compared.Results: Cross-sectional analyses revealed an age-dependent association of HSV carriage with lower episodic memory function, particularly among APOE ɛ4 carriers (p = 0.008). Longitudinal analyses showed an increased risk of episodic memory decline in HSV carriers (≥65 years: p < 0.001, all ages: non-significant), and a significant interaction between HSV and APOE ɛ4 for episodic memory decline (p < 0.001).Conclusion: In this large population-based cohort study, both cross-sectional and longitudinal results support an association between HSV carriage and declining episodic memory function, especially among APOE ɛ4 carriers. The results strengthen the hypothesis that HSV is associated with AD development.
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