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  • Fallqvist, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Nucleation and growth of CVD α-Al2O3on TixOy template
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Surface and Coatings Technology. - Elsevier. - 0257-8972. ; 207, s. 254-261
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The microstructure, phase and chemical composition of TixOy templates used to nucleate α-Al2O3 on Ti(C,N) coated cemented carbide have been elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. Further, the adhesive strength of the α-Al2O3–TixOy–Ti(C,N) interfaces was investigated using scratch adhesion testing.The present study confirmed that the as-deposited template consisted of a Ti4O7 phase which during subsequent deposition of the Al2O3 layer transformed to a Ti3O5 phase and that the grown Al2O3 layer consisted of 100% α-Al2O3. Furthermore, the results showed that the lowest interfacial strength within the multilayer structure was exhibited by the Ti(C,N)–TixOy interface and that the transformation of Ti4O7 to Ti3O5 in the template resulted in formation of pores in the Ti(C,N)-template interface lowering the interfacial strength even more. The use of surface analysis techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy and especially Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry enabled trace element analyses using depth profiling to characterise the thin interfacial layers in detail.
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3.
  • Svensson, A, et al. (författare)
  • An OFDM based System Proposal for 4G Downlinks
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Proceedings International Workshop on Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum for Future Generation Wireless Systems, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we describe an OFDM based 4G downlink for a wide area coverage and high mobility system. User data are multiplexed and OFDM modulated such that the user with the best predicted channel conditions are always using the channel. This user employs the linear modulation scheme that maximizes the spectral efficiency. We show that the system obtains a sector capacity that is significantly better than current 3G systems. <br/><br/>Various combinations of OFDM and CDMA are also discussed and it is concluded that it is difficult to motivate the significantly increased complexity of such schemes. Moreover, we also doubt that these combinations can increase spectral efficiency when predicted channel information is utilized at the transmitter
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4.
  • Albin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Assessment for Carbon Nanotubes
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Arbete och Hälsa. - Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg. - 0346-7821. - 978-91-85971-32-9 ; 45:5, s. 1
  • Annan publikation (refereegranskat)
5.
  • Backlund, Sandra, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Energy efficiency potentials and energy management practices in Swedish firms
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In order to improve energy efficiency and reach the EU:s 20-20-20 primary energy saving target, focus has mainly been on diffusion of technology. Previous studies have illustrated large untapped energy saving potentials from implementing energy management practices in firms. Energy management practices have large effects on energy utilization and also a short pay-back time. According to these studies, energy management practices also effect investment decisions and the outcome of investments in energy efficient technologies. This paper investigates to what extent energy management practices influence firms estimation of energy efficiency potentials. Further it investigates two Swedish policy programs that promote industrial energy management practices: The Programme For improving Energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (PFE) and the energy audit program and whether these have increased energy management practices in Swedish firms. A multiple case study has been conducted in order to investigate energy practices in firms in different industrial sectors. Employment of energy management varies between firms. The firms estimate equal energy efficiency potentials from implementation of energy efficient technology as for energy management practices. In total the firms estimate energy efficiency potentials of 12 %. The study shows that firms that have participated in the programs work more actively with energy management. This can be illustrated by the fact that 75 % of the firms that have not participated in any of the programs lack a person responsible for energy management and 50 % also lack a long term energy strategy. For firms that have participated in the programs the corresponding figures are 30 % and 33 %. The results indicate an untapped potential of energy efficiency measures that could be reached through increased energy management in Swedish industries.
6.
  • Backlund, Sandra, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • Extending the Energy efficiency gap
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Energy Policy. - Elsevier. - 0301-4215. ; 51, s. 392-396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to reach the EU: s 20–20–20 primary energy savings target, energy efficiency needs to increase. Previous research on energy use and energy efficiency has focused mainly on the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. The discrepancy between optimal and actual implementation of energy efficient technologies has been illustrated in numerous articles and is often referred to as the energy efficiency gap. However, efficient technologies are not the only ways to increase energy efficiency. Empirical studies have found that a cost-effective way to improve energy efficiency is to combine investments in energy-efficient technologies with continuous energy management practices. By including energy management into an estimated energy efficiency potential this paper introduces an extended energy efficiency gap, mainly in manufacturing industries and the commercial sector. The inclusion of energy management components in future energy policy will play an important role if the energy savings targets for 2020, and later 2050, are to be met in the EU.
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9.
  • Boman, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Corrosion of copper in water free from molecular oxygen
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology. - 1478-422X. ; 49:6, s. 431-434
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The possibility of copper reacting with O-2-free water has been investigated by analysis of primary corrosion products, as well as by monitoring gas pressure change by time, in long term experiments for up to 6 months in a glove box environment. We establish hydrogen production, but being of the same magnitude irrespective whether copper is present or not. Although low, the hydrogen production rate is considerably larger than what would directly correspond to the amount of analysed copper oxidation products. Our analyses encompass the changes to the surface cleaned copper (99.9999%), the water phase and the Duran glass in contact with the water (ppt quality). We have used very sensitive methods (XPS, AES, ICP-MS, XRF) while keeping contamination risks to a minimum. We conclude that the oxidation rate of copper is very low, yielding only parts of a monolayer of Cu2O after 6 months of exposure at 50 degrees C together with an accompanying very low concentration of copper species (4-5 mu g L-1) in the water phase.
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