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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Palmqvist Richard) srt2:(2002-2004)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Palmqvist Richard) > (2002-2004)

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1.
  • Jenab, Mazda, et al. (författare)
  • Association of nut and seed intake with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 13:10, s. 1595-603
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A link between unsaturated fatty acids or phytonutrients and reduced risk of colorectal cancer has been suggested. However, the effects of higher intake of dietary sources of these nutrients, such as the nuts and seeds food group, are less clear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nut and seed intake on colorectal cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, a large prospective cohort study involving 10 European countries. Total nut and seed intake was determined from country-specific dietary questionnaires. The data set included 478,040 subjects (141,988 men, 336,052 women) with a total of 855 (327 men, 528 women) colon and 474 (215 men, 259 women) rectal cancer cases. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, stratified by center and controlled for fruit intake, dietary fiber, energy, height, weight, sex, age, physical activity, and smoking, was used. The data show no association between higher intake of nuts and seeds and risk of colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers in men and women combined, but a significant inverse association was observed in subgroup analyses for colon cancer in women at the highest (>6.2 g/d) versus the lowest (nonconsumers; hazard ratio, 0.69;, 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.95) category of intake and for the linear effect of log-transformed intake (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.98), with no associations in men. It is not evident from this data why there may be a stronger association in women or why it may be limited to the colon, suggesting that much, further research is necessary.
2.
  • Jones, Dylan T, et al. (författare)
  • Albumin activates the AKT signaling pathway and protects B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from chlorambucil- and radiation-induced apoptosis.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Blood. - 0006-4971. ; 101:8, s. 3174-80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase/AKT pathway antagonizes apoptosis in diverse cellular systems. We previously showed that human plasma activated AKT and potently blocked the ability of chlorambucil or gamma radiation to induce apoptosis of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Here we report experiments that identify albumin as the major component of plasma that blocks CLL cell killing by chlorambucil or radiation. Intact plasma depleted of albumin by chromatography on Cibacron blue-Sepharose or plasma from a subject with analbuminemia failed either to activate AKT or to protect CLL cells from chlorambucil-induced apoptosis. Both functions were restored by re-addition of albumin. The protective action of albumin as well as AKT activation was compromised by the binding of lipids. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACScan) analysis demonstrated the uptake of fluoresceinated albumin by CLL cells. Accumulation of albumin in intracellular vesicles was also shown by confocal microscopy. Indirect inhibition of AKT activation by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 reversed the blockade of chlorambucil-induced killing by plasma albumin. The data suggest that activation of AKT consequent to binding of albumin by CLL cells blocks chlorambucil- and radiation-induced apoptosis. Strategies designed to block albumin-induced antiapoptotic signaling may, therefore, be of value in enhancing cytotoxic drug action on CLL cells.
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3.
  • Lukanova, Annekatrin, et al. (författare)
  • Nonlinear relationship of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-I/IGF-binding protein-3 ratio with indices of adiposity and plasma insulin concentrations (Sweden).
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243. ; 13:6, s. 509-516
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: In this study we test the hypothesis of a nonlinear relationship of IGF-I with indices of body fat such as body mass index (BMI), insulin, and leptin.METHODS: The controls used in three case-control cancer studies nested in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Cohort, were combined for this analysis. Measurements of plasma IGF-I, IGFBP-3, insulin, and leptin were available for 445 men and 391 women.RESULTS: In both men and women we found the highest mean IGF-I levels in subjects with BMI between 24 and 26. IGF-I concentrations decreased toward BMI < or = 20 and BMI > 30 in men; however, the results for women did not reach statistical significance. The molar ratio of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 showed a similar profile to that of IGF-I, although much less pronounced. The observed peak mean IGF-I levels in the second quintiles of insulin and leptin in men supported these findings. No significant variation of mean IGF-I levels across quintiles of insulin and leptin were observed in women.CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study provide evidence that IGF-I plasma concentrations vary substantially over a wide range of body weight and that the relationship is nonlinear.
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4.
  • Palmqvist, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnostic levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 242 in colorectal cancer : a matched case-control study.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. - 0012-3706. ; 46:11, s. 1538-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Carcinoembryonic antigen is the classical tumor marker for colorectal cancer. The main clinical utility is in monitoring patients with colorectal cancer. Like carcinoembryonic antigen, the plasma level of CA 242 is elevated in patients with colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the plasma levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and/or CA 242 were elevated before clinical diagnosis of colorectal cancer.METHODS: The Northern Sweden Health and Disease Cohort was linked to the Swedish National and Regional Cancer registries, and 124 prospective cases with colorectal cancer were identified. Two referents for each case were randomly selected and matched for gender, age, date of sampling, and fasting time. Plasma from the included patients was analyzed for carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 242 using specific immunoassays.RESULTS: An elevated level of carcinoembryonic antigen before diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of developing manifest colorectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 7.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.1-29.1; P = 0.002). An elevated level of CA 242 was not significantly related to colorectal cancer risk. Elevated carcinoembryonic antigen levels were only seen in samples collected in the two-year time interval immediately before diagnosis. In this group, 30.4 percent of all plasma samples from cases were carcinoembryonic antigen-positive and 71.4 percent were future Dukes A or B cases. The specificity of the carcinoembryonic antigen test for identifying future colorectal cancer patients was 0.99 with a sensitivity of 0.12. For CA 242 the specificity was 0.92 and the sensitivity was 0.1.CONCLUSIONS: Elevated carcinoembryonic antigen levels strongly indicate occult colorectal cancer. Although the specificity of the carcinoembryonic antigen test in its present form is high, the sensitivity is disappointingly low, prohibiting the use of the carcinoembryonic antigen test for mass screening.
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5.
  • Stattin, Pär, et al. (författare)
  • Obesity and colon cancer : does leptin provide a link?
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 109:1, s. 149-152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity, a risk factor for colorectal cancer, is associated with elevated serum levels of leptin, the adipocyte-derived hormone, and insulin. Experimental and epidemiologic studies have indicated a role for insulin in the pathogenesis of colon cancer, and recent experimental studies have suggested a similar role for leptin. In a case-control study nested in the Janus Biobank, Norway, we measured serum levels of leptin and C-peptide (a marker of pancreatic insulin secretion) in cryopreserved prediagnostic sera from men (median age, 45 years) who were diagnosed with cancer of the colon (n = 235) or rectum (n = 143) after blood collection (median time, 17 years), and among 378 controls matched for age and date of blood collection. Conditional logistic regression analyses showed an approximately 3-fold increase in colon cancer risk with increasing concentrations of leptin up to an odds ratio (OR) of 2.72 (95% CI = 1.44-5.12) for top vs. bottom quartile (p(trend) = 0.008). The corresponding OR for C-peptide was 1.81 (95% CI = 0.67-4.86; p(trend) = 0.19). The risk estimates remained unchanged after mutual adjustment. No association of hormone levels with rectal cancer risk was found. Reproducibility of hormone measurements assessed by intraclass coefficients (ICCs) for paired samples taken 1 year apart was high for leptin (ICC = 0.82) but lower for C-peptide (ICC = 0.30). Our results suggest that leptin is a risk factor for colon cancer, and that leptin may provide a link between obesity and colon cancer. Leptin may be directly involved in colon tumorigenesis or it may serve as a sensitive and robust marker of an obesity-induced adverse endocrine environment. Only weak support for an association of insulin with colon cancer was found.
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6.
  • Stattin, Pär, et al. (författare)
  • Plasma leptin and colorectal cancer risk : a prospective study in Northern Sweden.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Oncology Reports. - 1021-335X. ; 10:6, s. 2015-2021
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Circulating levels of leptin are high in obesity and strongly correlated to levels of insulin. Leptin stimulates growth of colon cancer cells. In a nested case-control study, we measured leptin levels in prediagnostic plasma from 75 men and 93 women who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer mean time 3.4 years (SD 2.4) after recruitment and among 327 control subjects. Logistic regression analyses showed increases in colorectal cancer risk in men with increasing levels of leptin, odds ratios (OR) were 1.00 (ref), 0.85 (95% C.I.=0.33-2.23), 1.04 (0.43-2.53), and 2.15 (0.89-5.22), (pfor trend=0.08). There was a distinct threshold between the third and fourth quartile of leptin, and the odds ratio for top quartile vs. three bottom quartiles was 2.28 (1.09-4.76). Adjustment for body mass index and insulin did not affect risk estimates. In separate analysis, odds ratio for top vs. bottom tertile of colon cancer was 1.96 (95% C.I.=0.72-5.29), whereas no increase was seen for rectal cancer. In women, no association between leptin and risk was seen. These data support the hypothesis that leptin is a risk marker for colorectal cancer in men, but not in women.
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