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Sökning: WFRF:(Palmqvist Richard) > (2005-2009) > (2005)

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  • Cederquist, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Two Swedish founder MSH6 mutations, one nonsense and one missense, conferring high cumulative risk of Lynch syndrome.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Clinical Genetics. - 0009-9163. ; 68:6, s. 533-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Lynch syndrome, or hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is a cancer susceptibility syndrome caused by germline mutations in mismatch-repair genes, predominantly MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. A majority of the mutations reported are truncating, but for MSH6, missense mutations constitute over one third. Few have been proven pathogenic in functional studies or shown to segregate in families. In this study, we show segregation of the putative pathogenic MSH6 missense mutation c.1346T>C p.Leu449Pro with microsatellite instability-high Lynch syndrome-related tumours lacking MSH6 expression in a large 17th century pedigree. Another large family with the MSH6 nonsense c.2931C>G, p.Tyr977X mutation is similar in tumour spectra, age of onset and cumulative risk. These MSH6 families, despite their late age of onset, have a high lifetime risk of all Lynch syndrome-related cancers, significantly higher in women (89% by age 80) than in men (69%). The gender differences are in part explained by high endometrial (70%) and ovarian (33%) cancer risks added upon the high colorectal cancer risk (60%). The several occurrences of breast cancer are not due to the MSH6 mutations. These findings are of great importance for counselling, management and surveillance of families with MSH6 mutations.
  • Norat, Teresa, et al. (författare)
  • Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 97:12, s. 906-16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fish intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing. Methods: We prospectively followed 478040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 1329 incident colorectal cancers were documented. We examined the relationship between intakes of red and processed meat, poultry, and fish and colorectal cancer risk using a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, energy (nonfat and fat sources), height, weight, work-related physical activity, smoking status, dietary fiber and folate, and alcohol consumption, stratified by center. A calibration substudy based on 36994 subjects was used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with intake of red and processed meat (highest [> 160 g/day] versus lowest [< 20 g/day] intake, HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.88; P-trend = .03) and inversely associated with intake of fish (> 80 g/day versus < 10 g/day, HR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.88; P-trend < .001), but was not related to poultry intake. Correcting for measurement error strengthened the associations between colorectal cancer and red and processed meat intake (per 100-g increase HR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.41, P-trend = .001 and HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.02, P-trend = .001 before and after calibration, respectively) and for fish (per 100 g increase HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.87, P-trend < .001 and HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.77, P-trend = .003; before and after correction, respectively). In this study population, the absolute risk of development of colorectal cancer within 10 years for a study subject aged 50 years was 1.71% for the highest category of red and processed meat intake and 1.28% for the lowest category of intake and was 1.86% for subjects in the lowest category of fish intake and 1.28% for subjects in the highest category of fish intake. Conclusions: Our data confirm that colorectal cancer risk is positively associated with high consumption of red and processed meat and support an inverse association with fish intake.
  • Palmqvist, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • hTERT gene copy number is not associated with hTERT RNA expression or telomerase activity in colorectal cancer
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Geneve : International union against cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 116:3, s. 395-400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a majority of malignant human tumors telomerase activity can be detected, suggesting an immortal phenotype. Expression of the reverse transcriptase subunit, hTERT, in the human telomerase complex is required for telomerase activity. The regulation of hTERT, from gene level to a fully functional protein, is still a poorly understood process. Increased copy number of the hTERT gene has been demonstrated in a significant portion of established cell lines and tumors of different origin but its relevance for telomerase activity levels is unclear. In the present study, we examined the hTERT gene copy number using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in samples from 64 colorectal carcinomas and an increased copy number (≥ 3 hTERT gene copies/nucleus) was observed in 31 cases (48%). No statistical association existed between hTERT gene copy number and hTERT RNA expression or telomerase activity. However, a significant relationship was found between an increase in hTERT gene copy number and p53 protein accumulation (p = 0.002) and aneuploidy (p = 0.036). Only 4 tumors showed microsatellite instability, 3 of which had a normal hTERT gene copy number. The data indicated that the increased copy number of the hTERT gene in colorectal carcinoma was a result of genomic instability with no obvious consequence for telomerase activity levels.
  • Van Guelpen, Bethany, et al. (författare)
  • Folate, vitamin B12, and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke : a prospective, nested case-referent study of plasma concentrations and dietary intake.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499. ; 36:7, s. 1426-1431
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Folate metabolism has been implicated in stroke. However, the possibility of a role for folate and vitamin B12, independent of their effects on homocysteine status, remains to be explored. The aim of this prospective, nested case-referent study was to relate plasma and dietary intake levels of folate and vitamin B12 to risk of stroke, taking into consideration plasma homocysteine concentrations and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms. METHODS: Subjects were 334 ischemic and 62 hemorrhagic stroke cases and matched double referents from the population-based Northern Sweden Health and Disease Cohort. RESULTS: Plasma folate was statistically significantly associated with risk of hemorrhagic stroke in an inverse linear manner, both in univariate analysis and after adjustment for conventional risk factors including hypertension (odds ratio [OR] for highest versus lowest quartile 0.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06 to 0.71; P for trend=0.008)). Risk estimates were attenuated by inclusion of homocysteine in the model (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.08 to 1.40; P for trend=0.088). A similar pattern was observed for increasing folate intake (multivariate OR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.55; P for trend=0.031 without homocysteine, and OR, 0.16, 95% CI, 0.02 to 1.23; P for trend=0.118 with homocysteine in the analysis). We found little evidence of an association between plasma or dietary folate and risk of ischemic stroke. Neither plasma nor dietary vitamin B12 was associated with risk of either stroke subtype. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest a protective role for folate, possibly in addition to its effects on homocysteine status, in hemorrhagic but not ischemic stroke.
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