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Sökning: WFRF:(Parker B.) > (2020-2021)

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1.
  • Munn-Chernoff, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215 .- 1369-1600. ; 26:1, s. e12880-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r(g)], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from similar to 2400 to similar to 537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r(g) = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r(g) = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r(g) = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r(gs) = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
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2.
  • Campbell, PJ, et al. (författare)
  • Pan-cancer analysis of whole genomes
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-4687 .- 0028-0836. ; 578:7793, s. 82-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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3.
  • Bryois, J., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic identification of cell types underlying brain complex traits yields insights into the etiology of Parkinson’s disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 52:5, s. 482-493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have discovered hundreds of loci associated with complex brain disorders, but it remains unclear in which cell types these loci are active. Here we integrate genome-wide association study results with single-cell transcriptomic data from the entire mouse nervous system to systematically identify cell types underlying brain complex traits. We show that psychiatric disorders are predominantly associated with projecting excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Neurological diseases were associated with different cell types, which is consistent with other lines of evidence. Notably, Parkinson’s disease was genetically associated not only with cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons (which include dopaminergic neurons) but also with enteric neurons and oligodendrocytes. Using post-mortem brain transcriptomic data, we confirmed alterations in these cells, even at the earliest stages of disease progression. Our study provides an important framework for understanding the cellular basis of complex brain maladies, and reveals an unexpected role of oligodendrocytes in Parkinson’s disease. © 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.
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4.
  • Patel, Yash, et al. (författare)
  • Virtual Histology of Cortical Thickness and Shared Neurobiology in 6 Psychiatric Disorders.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - 2168-6238.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large-scale neuroimaging studies have revealed group differences in cortical thickness across many psychiatric disorders. The underlying neurobiology behind these differences is not well understood.To determine neurobiologic correlates of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls in 6 disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia.Profiles of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls were generated using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Similarity between interregional profiles of cell-specific gene expression and those in the group differences in cortical thickness were investigated in each disorder. Next, principal component analysis was used to reveal a shared profile of group difference in thickness across the disorders. Analysis for gene coexpression, clustering, and enrichment for genes associated with these disorders were conducted. Data analysis was conducted between June and December 2019. The analysis included 145 cohorts across 6 psychiatric disorders drawn from the ENIGMA consortium. The numbers of cases and controls in each of the 6 disorders were as follows: ADHD: 1814 and 1602; ASD: 1748 and 1770; BD: 1547 and 3405; MDD: 2658 and 3572; OCD: 2266 and 2007; and schizophrenia: 2688 and 3244.Interregional profiles of group difference in cortical thickness between cases and controls.A total of 12 721 cases and 15 600 controls, ranging from ages 2 to 89 years, were included in this study. Interregional profiles of group differences in cortical thickness for each of the 6 psychiatric disorders were associated with profiles of gene expression specific to pyramidal (CA1) cells, astrocytes (except for BD), and microglia (except for OCD); collectively, gene-expression profiles of the 3 cell types explain between 25% and 54% of variance in interregional profiles of group differences in cortical thickness. Principal component analysis revealed a shared profile of difference in cortical thickness across the 6 disorders (48% variance explained); interregional profile of this principal component 1 was associated with that of the pyramidal-cell gene expression (explaining 56% of interregional variation). Coexpression analyses of these genes revealed 2 clusters: (1) a prenatal cluster enriched with genes involved in neurodevelopmental (axon guidance) processes and (2) a postnatal cluster enriched with genes involved in synaptic activity and plasticity-related processes. These clusters were enriched with genes associated with all 6 psychiatric disorders.In this study, shared neurobiologic processes were associated with differences in cortical thickness across multiple psychiatric disorders. These processes implicate a common role of prenatal development and postnatal functioning of the cerebral cortex in these disorders.
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5.
  • Novak, R., et al. (författare)
  • Robotic fluidic coupling and interrogation of multiple vascularized organ chips
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Biomedical Engineering. - : Nature Research. - 2157-846X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Organ chips can recapitulate organ-level (patho)physiology, yet pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses require multi-organ systems linked by vascular perfusion. Here, we describe an ‘interrogator’ that employs liquid-handling robotics, custom software and an integrated mobile microscope for the automated culture, perfusion, medium addition, fluidic linking, sample collection and in situ microscopy imaging of up to ten organ chips inside a standard tissue-culture incubator. The robotic interrogator maintained the viability and organ-specific functions of eight vascularized, two-channel organ chips (intestine, liver, kidney, heart, lung, skin, blood–brain barrier and brain) for 3 weeks in culture when intermittently fluidically coupled via a common blood substitute through their reservoirs of medium and endothelium-lined vascular channels. We used the robotic interrogator and a physiological multicompartmental reduced-order model of the experimental system to quantitatively predict the distribution of an inulin tracer perfused through the multi-organ human-body-on-chips. The automated culture system enables the imaging of cells in the organ chips and the repeated sampling of both the vascular and interstitial compartments without compromising fluidic coupling.
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6.
  • Herland, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative prediction of human pharmacokinetic responses to drugs via fluidically coupled vascularized organ chips
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Biomedical Engineering. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2157-846X. ; 4:4, s. 421-436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Analyses of drug pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) performed in animals are often not predictive of drug PKs and PDs in humans, and in vitro PK and PD modelling does not provide quantitative PK parameters. Here, we show that physiological PK modelling of first-pass drug absorption, metabolism and excretion in humans—using computationally scaled data from multiple fluidically linked two-channel organ chips—predicts PK parameters for orally administered nicotine (using gut, liver and kidney chips) and for intravenously injected cisplatin (using coupled bone marrow, liver and kidney chips). The chips are linked through sequential robotic liquid transfers of a common blood substitute by their endothelium-lined channels (as reported by Novak et al. in an associated Article) and share an arteriovenous fluid-mixing reservoir. We also show that predictions of cisplatin PDs match previously reported patient data. The quantitative in-vitro-to-in-vivo translation of PK and PD parameters and the prediction of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity through fluidically coupled organ chips may improve the design of drug-administration regimens for phase-I clinical trials.
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8.
  • Parma, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • More Than Smell—COVID-19 Is Associated With Severe Impairment of Smell, Taste, and Chemesthesis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Chemical Senses. - 0379-864X .- 1464-3553. ; 45:7, s. 609-622
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent anecdotal and scientific reports have provided evidence of a link between COVID-19 and chemosensory impairments, such as anosmia. However, these reports have downplayed or failed to distinguish potential effects on taste, ignored chemesthesis, and generally lacked quantitative measurements. Here, we report the development, implementation, and initial results of a multilingual, international questionnaire to assess self-reported quantity and quality of perception in 3 distinct chemosensory modalities (smell, taste, and chemesthesis) before and during COVID-19. In the first 11 days after questionnaire launch, 4039 participants (2913 women, 1118 men, and 8 others, aged 19–79) reported a COVID-19 diagnosis either via laboratory tests or clinical assessment. Importantly, smell, taste, and chemesthetic function were each significantly reduced compared to their status before the disease. Difference scores (maximum possible change ±100) revealed a mean reduction of smell (−79.7 ± 28.7, mean ± standard deviation), taste (−69.0 ± 32.6), and chemesthetic (−37.3 ± 36.2) function during COVID-19. Qualitative changes in olfactory ability (parosmia and phantosmia) were relatively rare and correlated with smell loss. Importantly, perceived nasal obstruction did not account for smell loss. Furthermore, chemosensory impairments were similar between participants in the laboratory test and clinical assessment groups. These results show that COVID-19-associated chemosensory impairment is not limited to smell but also affects taste and chemesthesis. The multimodal impact of COVID-19 and the lack of perceived nasal obstruction suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus strain 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may disrupt sensory-neural mechanisms.
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10.
  • Scahill, R. I., et al. (författare)
  • Biological and clinical characteristics of gene carriers far from predicted onset in the Huntington?s disease Young Adult Study (HD-YAS): a cross-sectional analysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - 1474-4422. ; 19:6, s. 502-512
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Disease-modifying treatments are in development for Huntington's disease; crucial to their success is to identify a timepoint in a patient's life when there is a measurable biomarker of early neurodegeneration while clinical function is still intact. We aimed to identify this timepoint in a novel cohort of young adult premanifest Huntington's disease gene carriers (preHD) far from predicted clinical symptom onset. Methods We did the Huntington's disease Young Adult Study (HD-YAS) in the UK. We recruited young adults with preHD and controls matched for age, education, and sex to ensure each group had at least 60 participants with imaging data, accounting for scan fails. Controls either had a family history of Huntington's disease but a negative genetic test, or no known family history of Huntington's disease. All participants underwent detailed neuropsychiatric and cognitive assessments, including tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and a battery assessing emotion, motivation, impulsivity and social cognition (EMOTICOM). Imaging (done for all participants without contraindications) included volumetric MRI, diffusion imaging, and multiparametric mapping. Biofluid markers of neuronal health were examined using blood and CSF collection. We did a cross-sectional analysis using general least-squares linear models to assess group differences and associations with age and CAG length, relating to predicted years to clinical onset. Results were corrected for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate (FDR), with FDR <0.05 deemed a significant result. Findings Data were obtained between Aug 2, 2017, and April 25, 2019. We recruited 64 young adults with preHD and 67 controls. Mean ages of participants were 29.0 years (SD 5.6) and 29.1 years (5.7) in the preHD and control groups, respectively. We noted no significant evidence of cognitive or psychiatric impairment in preHD participants 23.6 years (SD 5.8) from predicted onset (FDR 0.22-0.87 for cognitive measures, 0.31-0.91 for neuropsychiatric measures). The preHD cohort had slightly smaller putamen volumes (FDR=0.03), but this did not appear to be closely related to predicted years to onset (FDR=0.54). There were no group differences in other brain imaging measures (FDR >0.16). CSF neurofilament light protein (NfL), plasma NfL, and CSF YKL-40 were elevated in this far-from-onset preHD cohort compared with controls (FDR<0.0001, =0.01, and =0.03, respectively). CSF NfL elevations were more likely in individuals closer to expected clinical onset (FDR <0.0001). Interpretation We report normal brain function yet a rise in sensitive measures of neurodegeneration in a preHD cohort approximately 24 years from predicted clinical onset. CSF NfL appears to be a more sensitive measure than plasma NfL to monitor disease progression. This preHD cohort is one of the earliest yet studied, and our findings could be used to inform decisions about when to initiate a potential future intervention to delay or prevent further neurodegeneration while function is intact.
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