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Sökning: WFRF:(Pavel Marianne) > (2020-2021)

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1.
  • Ambrosini, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Consensus on molecular imaging and theranostics in neuroendocrine neoplasms
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - 0959-8049 .- 1879-0852. ; 146, s. 56-73
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nuclear medicine plays an increasingly important role in the management neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN). Somatostatin analogue (SSA)-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) have been used in clinical trials and approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Focus 3 performed a multidisciplinary Delphi process to deliver a balanced perspective on molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy in well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). NETs form in cells that interact with the nervous system or in glands that produce hormones. These cells, called neuroendocrine cells, can be found throughout the body, but NETs are most often found in the abdomen, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. These tumours may also be found in the lungs, pancreas and adrenal glands. In addition to being rare, NETs are also complex and may be difficult to diagnose. Most NETs are non-functioning; however, a minority present with symptoms related to hypersecretion of bioactive compounds. NETs often do not cause symptoms early in the disease process. When diagnosed, substantial number of patients are already found to have metastatic disease. Several societies' guidelines address Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) management; however, many issues are still debated, due to both the difficulty in acquiring strong clinical evidence in a rare and heterogeneous disease and the different availability of diagnostic and therapeutic options across countries. EANM Focus 3 reached consensus on employing 68gallium-labelled somatostatin analogue ([68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA)-based PET/CT with diagnostic CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for unknown primary NET detection, metastatic NET, NET staging/restaging, suspected extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and suspected paraganglioma. Consensus was reached on employing 18fluorine-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET/CT in neuroendocrine carcinoma, G3 NET and in G1-2 NET with mismatched lesions (CT-positive/[68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA-negative). Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) was recommended for second line treatment for gastrointestinal NET with [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA uptake in all lesions, in G1/G2 NET at disease progression, and in a subset of G3 NET provided all lesions are positive at [18F]FDG and [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-SSA. PRRT rechallenge may be used for in patients with stable disease for at least 1 year after therapy completion. An international consensus is not only a prelude to a more standardised management across countries but also serves as a guide for the direction to follow when designing new research studies.
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2.
  • Chazot, Nicolas, et al. (författare)
  • Conserved ancestral tropical niche but different continental histories explain the latitudinal diversity gradient in brush-footed butterflies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The global increase in species richness toward the tropics across continents and taxonomic groups, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, stimulated the formulation of many hypotheses to explain the underlying mechanisms of this pattern. We evaluate several of these hypotheses to explain spatial diversity patterns in a butterfly family, the Nymphalidae, by assessing the contributions of speciation, extinction, and dispersal, and also the extent to which these processes differ among regions at the same latitude. We generate a time-calibrated phylogeny containing 2,866 nymphalid species (~45% of extant diversity). Neither speciation nor extinction rate variations consistently explain the latitudinal diversity gradient among regions because temporal diversification dynamics differ greatly across longitude. The Neotropical diversity results from low extinction rates, not high speciation rates, and biotic interchanges with other regions are rare. Southeast Asia is also characterized by a low speciation rate but, unlike the Neotropics, is the main source of dispersal events through time. Our results suggest that global climate change throughout the Cenozoic, combined with tropical niche conservatism, played a major role in generating the modern latitudinal diversity gradient of nymphalid butterflies.
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3.
  • Dawod, Mohammed, et al. (författare)
  • Antiproliferative Systemic Therapies for Metastatic Small Bowel Neuroendocrine Tumours
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Current Treatment Options in Oncology. - 1527-2729 .- 1534-6277. ; 22:8
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies with rising incidence and prevalence. Outcome and therapy of small bowel neuroendocrine tumours (SBNETs) is variable, depending on the grade, differentiation, tumour burden, as well as the site of the tumour origin. Because of this, multidisciplinary approach is essential. Large randomized clinical trials, with somatostatin analogues (PROMID, CLARINET) or with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 177-lutetium (NETTER-1 trial) as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (mTOR) everolimus (RADIANT trials), represent milestones for the medical management of unresectable grade 1 and 2 SBNETS over the last decade. Novel therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), are on the cutting edge. However, multiple unsolved questions remain. This review provides a comprehensive review of the main systemic therapeutic options for advanced SBNETs and discusses the latest guideline recommendations for palliative treatment.
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4.
  • Dehasque, Marianne, et al. (författare)
  • Combining Bayesian age models and genetics to investigate population dynamics and extinction of the last mammoths in northern Siberia
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews. - 0277-3791 .- 1873-457X. ; 259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To understand the causes and implications of an extinction event, detailed information is necessary. However, this can be challenging when working with poorly resolved paleontological data sets. One approach to increase the data resolution is by combining different methods. In this study, we used both radiocarbon and genetic data to reconstruct the population history and extinction dynamics of the woolly mammoth in northern Siberia. We generated 88 new radiocarbon dates and combined these with previously published dates from 626 specimens to construct Bayesian age models. These models show that mammoths disappeared on the eastern Siberian mainland before the onset of the Younger Dryas (12.9–11.7 ky cal BP). Mammoths did however persist in the northernmost parts of central and western Siberia until the early Holocene. Further genetic results of 131 high quality mitogenomes, including 22 new mitogenomes generated in this study, support the hypothesis that mammoths from, or closely related to, a central and/or west- Siberian population recolonized Wrangel Island over the now submerged northern Siberian plains. As mammoths became trapped on the island due to rising sea levels, they lived another ca. 6000 years on Wrangel Island before eventually going extinct ca. 4000 years ago.
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5.
  • Dillon, Joseph S., et al. (författare)
  • Time to Sustained Improvement in Bowel Movement Frequency with Telotristat Ethyl : Analyses of Phase III Studies in Carcinoid Syndrome
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer. - 1941-6628 .- 1941-6636. ; 52:1, s. 212-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundTelotristat ethyl is approved to treat carcinoid syndrome diarrhea in combination with somatostatin analogs. In TELESTAR and TELECAST phase III studies, patients with carcinoid syndrome received telotristat ethyl 250 or 500 mg 3 times per day (tid) or placebo tid in addition to somatostatin analogs. The aim of this prespecified analysis was to examine the time to reductions in bowel movements (BMs) in the TELESTAR and TELECAST studies using survival analysis methods.MethodsFirst occurrence of sustained response was defined as the time to the first day of 2 consecutive weeks with a mean BM frequency improvement of ≥ 30% from baseline during the 12-week double-blind treatment periods. Time to first ≥ 30% worsening in BM frequency was also measured. Treatments were compared with the log-rank test; Cox regression models provided point and confidence interval estimates of the hazard ratios for each trial.ResultsIn TELESTAR and TELECAST, majority of patients (69%) on telotristat ethyl experienced a sustained ≥ 30% improvement in BM frequency. The median time to sustained reduction of at least 30% in BM frequency was significantly faster (fewer days to onset) for telotristat ethyl compared with placebo in both TELESTAR (250 mg, HR = 2.3 [95% CI, 1.3–4.1, P = 0.004]; 500 mg, HR = 2.2 [95% CI, 1.2–3.9, P = 0.009]) and TELECAST (250 mg, HR = 3.9 [95% CI, 1.6–11.1, P = 0.003]; 500 mg, HR = 4.2 [95% CI, 1.7–11.7, P = 0.002]). In TELECAST, 42% of patients on placebo experienced sustained worsening in BM frequency compared with 20% on telotristat ethyl; no significant difference was observed in TELESTAR.ConclusionThe time of onset of sustained BM frequency improvement mean and range are important when considering use of telotristat ethyl in patients with carcinoid syndrome diarrhea. Telotristat ethyl may also reduce sustained worsening in BM frequency.
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6.
  • Dromain, Clarisse, et al. (författare)
  • Tumour Growth Rate to predict the outcome of patients with Neuroendocrine Tumours : Performance and sources of variability
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - 0028-3835 .- 1423-0194. ; 111:9, s. 831-839
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Tumor growth rate (TGR), percentage of change in tumor volume/month, has been previously identified as an early radiological biomarker for treatment monitoring in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) patients. We assessed the performance and reproducibility of TGR 3 months (TGR3m) as a predictor factor of progression-free survival (PFS), including the impact of imaging method and reader variability.METHODS: Baseline and 3-months (±1month) CT/MRI images from patients with advanced, grade 1-2 NETs were retrospectively reviewed by 2 readers. Influence of number of targets, tumor burden and location of lesion on the performance of TGR3m to predict PFS was assessed by uni/multivariable Cox regression analysis. Agreement between readers was assessed by the Lin's concordance coefficient (LCC) and Kappa (KC).RESULTS: A total of 790 lesions were measured in 222 patients. Median PFS was 22.9 months. On univariable analysis, number of lesions (DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: TGR3m is a robust and early radiological biomarker able to predict PFS. It may be used to identify patients with advanced NETs who require closer radiological follow-up.
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7.
  • Lamarca, Angela, et al. (författare)
  • Advanced small-bowel well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours : An international survey of practice on 3(rd)-line treatment
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Gastroenterology. - : BAISHIDENG PUBLISHING GROUP INC. - 1007-9327 .- 2219-2840. ; 27:10, s. 976-989
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Somatostatin analogues are an established first-line therapy for well differentiated small bowel neuroendocrine tumours (Wd-SBNETs), while and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is frequently used as a second-line therapy. Adequate treatment selection of third-line treatment remains challenging due to the limited prospective data currently available on the best therapeutic sequence. AIM To understand current practice and rationale for decision-making by physicians in the 3(rd)-line setting by building an online survey. METHODS Weighted average (WA) of likelihood of usage between responders (1 very unlikely; 4 very likely) was used to reflect the relevance of factors explored. RESULTS Replies from representatives of 28 centers were received (5/8/2020-21/9/2020); medical oncologist (53.6%), gastroenterologist (17.9%); United Kingdom (21.4%), Spain (17.9%), Italy (14.3%). Majority from European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) Centres of Excellence (57.1%), who followed ENETS guidelines (82.1%). Generally speaking, 3(rd)-line treatment for Wd-SBNETs was: everolimus (EVE) (66.7%), PRRT (18.5%), liver embolization (LE) (7.4%) and interferon-alpha (IFN) (3.7%); chemotherapy (0%); decision was based on clinical trial data (59.3%), or personal experience (22.2%). EVE was most likely used if Ki-67 < 10% (WA 3.27/4) or age < 70 years (WA 3.23/4), in the 3(rd)-line setting (WA 3.23/4); regardless of presence/absence of carcinoid syndrome (CS), rate of progression or extent of disease. Chemotherapy was mainly utilised only if rapid progression (within 6 mo) (WA 3.35/4), Ki-67 10%-20% (WA 2.77/4), negative somatostatin receptor imaging (WA 2.65/4) or high tumour burden (WA 2.77/4); temozolomide or streptozocin was used with capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (57.7%), FOLFOX (5-FU combined with oxaliplatin) (23.1%). LE was selected if presence of CS (WA 3.24/4) or Ki-67 < 10% (WA 2.8/4), after progression to other treatments (WA 2.8/4). IFN was rarely used (WA 1.3/4). CONCLUSION Everolimus was the most frequently used therapeutic option in the third-line setting. The most important factors for decision-making included Ki-67, rate of progression, functionality and tumour burden; since this decision is based on multiple factors, it highlights the need for a multidisciplinary assessment.
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8.
  • Rodriguez-Freixinos, Victor, et al. (författare)
  • Practical recommendations for the management of patients with gastroenteropancreatic and thoracic (carcinoid) neuroendocrine neoplasms in the COVID-19 era
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - : ELSEVIER SCI LTD. - 0959-8049 .- 1879-0852. ; 144, s. 200-214
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous family of uncommon tumours with challenging diagnosis, clinical management and unique needs that almost always requires a multidisciplinary approach. In the absence of guidance from the scientific literature, along with the rapidly changing data available on the effect of COVID-19, we report how 12 high-volume NEN centres of expertise in 10 countries at different stages of the evolving COVID-19 global pandemic along with members of international neuroendocrine cancer patient societies have suggested to preserve high standards of care for patients with NENs. We review the multidisciplinary management of neuroendocrine neoplasms during the COVID-19 pandemic, and we suggest potential strategies to reduce risk and aid multidisciplinary treatment decision-making. By sharing our joint experiences, we aim to generate recommendations for proceeding to other institutions facing the same challenges. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Strosberg, Jonathan, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of liver tumour burden, alkaline phosphatase elevation, and target lesion size on treatment outcomes with Lu-177-Dotatate : an analysis of the NETTER-1 study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - : SPRINGER. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 47:10, s. 2372-2382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To assess the impact of baseline liver tumour burden, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) elevation, and target lesion size on treatment outcomes with Lu-177-Dotatate. Methods In the phase 3 NETTER-1 trial, patients with advanced, progressive midgut neuroendocrine tumours (NET) were randomised to 177Lu-Dotatate (every 8 weeks, four cycles) plus octreotide long-acting release (LAR) or to octreotide LAR 60 mg. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Analyses of PFS by baseline factors, including liver tumour burden, ALP elevation, and target lesion size, were performed using Kaplan-Meier estimates; hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding 95% CIs were estimated using Cox regression. Results Significantly prolonged median PFS occurred with Lu-177-Dotatate versus octreotide LAR 60 mg in patients with low (< 25%), moderate (25-50%), and high (> 50%) liver tumour burden (HR 0.187, 0.216, 0.145), and normal or elevated ALP (HR 0.153, 0.177), and in the presence or absence of a large target lesion (diameter > 30 mm; HR, 0.213, 0.063). Within the Lu-177-Dotatate arm, no significant difference in PFS was observed amongst patients with low/moderate/high liver tumour burden (P = 0.7225) or with normal/elevated baseline ALP (P = 0.3532), but absence of a large target lesion was associated with improved PFS (P = 0.0222). Grade 3 and 4 liver function abnormalities were rare and did not appear to be associated with high baseline liver tumour burden. Conclusions Lu-177-Dotatate demonstrated significant prolongation in PFS versus high-dose octreotide LAR in patients with advanced, progressive midgut NET, regardless of baseline liver tumour burden, elevated ALP, or the presence of a large target lesion. : NCT01578239, EudraCT: 2011-005049-11
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10.
  • van der Valk, Tom, et al. (författare)
  • Million-year-old DNA sheds light on the genomic history of mammoths
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 591:7849, s. 265-269
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Temporal genomic data hold great potential for studying evolutionary processes such as speciation. However, sampling across speciation events would, in many cases, require genomic time series that stretch well back into the Early Pleistocene subepoch. Although theoretical models suggest that DNA should survive on this timescale1, the oldest genomic data recovered so far are from a horse specimen dated to 780–560 thousand years ago2. Here we report the recovery of genome-wide data from three mammoth specimens dating to the Early and Middle Pleistocene subepochs, two of which are more than one million years old. We find that two distinct mammoth lineages were present in eastern Siberia during the Early Pleistocene. One of these lineages gave rise to the woolly mammoth and the other represents a previously unrecognized lineage that was ancestral to the first mammoths to colonize North America. Our analyses reveal that the Columbian mammoth of North America traces its ancestry to a Middle Pleistocene hybridization between these two lineages, with roughly equal admixture proportions. Finally, we show that the majority of protein-coding changes associated with cold adaptation in woolly mammoths were already present one million years ago. These findings highlight the potential of deep-time palaeogenomics to expand our understanding of speciation and long-term adaptive evolution.
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