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Sökning: WFRF:(Pemberton L.)

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  • Hansson, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • No evidence for inbreeding avoidance in a great reed warbler population
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Behavioral Ecology. - Oxford University Press. - 1045-2249. ; 18:1, s. 157-164
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inbreeding depression may drive the evolution of inbreeding avoidance through dispersal and mate choice. In birds, many species show female-biased dispersal, which is an effective inbreeding avoidance mechanism. In contrast, there is scarce evidence in birds for kin discriminative mate choice, which may, at least partly, reflect difficulties detecting it. First, kin discrimination may be realized as dispersal, and this is difficult to distinguish from other causes of dispersal. Second, even within small, isolated populations, it is often difficult to determine the potential candidates available to a female when choosing a mate. We sought evidence for inbreeding avoidance via kin discrimination in a breeding population of great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) studied over 17 years. Inbreeding depression is strong in the population, suggesting that it would be adaptive to avoid relatives as mates. Detailed data on timing of settlement and mate search movements made it possible to identify candidate mates for each female, and long-term pedigrees and resolved parentage enabled us to estimate relatedness between females and their candidate mates. We found no evidence for kin discrimination: mate choice was random with respect to relatedness when all mate-choice events were considered, and, after correction for multiple tests, also in all breeding years. We suggest that dispersal is a sufficient inbreeding avoidance mechanism in most situations, although the lack of kin discriminative mate choice has negative consequences for some females, because they end up mating with closely related males that lowers their fitness.
  • Jahn, A., et al. (författare)
  • Arctic Ocean freshwater : How robust are model simulations?
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - 0148-0227. ; 117, s. C00D16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Arctic freshwater (FW) has been the focus of many modeling studies, due to the potential impact of Arctic FW on the deep water formation in the North Atlantic. A comparison of the hindcasts from ten ocean-sea ice models shows that the simulation of the Arctic FW budget is quite different in the investigated models. While they agree on the general sink and source terms of the Arctic FW budget, the long-term means as well as the variability of the FW export vary among models. The best model-to-model agreement is found for the interannual and seasonal variability of the solid FW export and the solid FW storage, which also agree well with observations. For the interannual and seasonal variability of the liquid FW export, the agreement among models is better for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) than for Fram Strait. The reason for this is that models are more consistent in simulating volume flux anomalies than salinity anomalies and volume-flux anomalies dominate the liquid FW export variability in the CAA but not in Fram Strait. The seasonal cycle of the liquid FW export generally shows a better agreement among models than the interannual variability, and compared to observations the models capture the seasonality of the liquid FW export rather well. In order to improve future simulations of the Arctic FW budget, the simulation of the salinity field needs to be improved, so that model results on the variability of the liquid FW export and storage become more robust. Citation: Jahn, A., et al. (2012), Arctic Ocean freshwater: How robust are model simulations?, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C00D16, doi: 10.1029/2012JC007907.
  • Skeoch, S., et al. (författare)
  • Imaging atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis: evidence for increased prevalence, altered phenotype and a link between systemic and localised plaque inflammation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic inflammation is thought to drive increased cardiovascular risk through accelerated atherosclerosis. It may also lead to a more high-risk plaque phenotype. We sought to investigate carotid plaque phenotype in RA patients using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) and Fludeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography(FDG-PET). In this pilot study, RA patients and age/sex-matched controls were evaluated for cardiovascular risk factors and carotid plaque on ultrasound. Subjects with plaque >2 mm thick underwent DCE-MRI, and a subgroup of patients had FDG-PET. Comparison of MRI findings between groups and correlation between clinical, serological markers and imaging findings was undertaken. 130 patients and 62 controls were recruited. Plaque was more prevalent in the RA group (53.1% vs 37.0%, p = 0.038) and was independently associated with IL6 levels (HR[95% CI]: 2.03 [1.26, 3.26] per quartile). DCE-MRI data were available in 15 patients and 5 controls. Higher prevalence of plaque calcification was noted in RA, despite similar plaque size (73.3% vs 20%, p = 0.04). FDG-PET detected plaque inflammation in 12/13 patients scanned and degree of inflammation correlated with hs-CRP (r = 0.58, p = 0.04). This study confirms increased prevalence of atherosclerosis in RA and provides data to support the hypothesis that patients have a high-risk plaque phenotype.
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