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Sökning: WFRF:(Persson Anders) > Umeå universitet

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  • Brännström, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Ca2+ enhances Aβ polymerization rate and fibrillar stability in a dynamic manner
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - Portland Press. - 0264-6021. ; 450, s. 189-197
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identifying factors that affect the self-assembly of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is of utmost importance in the quest to understand the molecular mechanisms causing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ca2+ has previously been shown to accelerate both Aβ fibril nucleation and maturation, and a dysregulated Ca2+ homeostasis frequently correlates with development of AD. The mechanisms regarding Ca2+ binding as well as its effect on fibril kinetics are not fully understood. Using a polymerization assay we show that Ca2+ in a dynamic and reversible manner enhances both the elongation rate and fibrillar stability, where specifically the "dock and lock" phase mechanism is enhanced. Through NMR analysis we found that Ca2+ affects the fibrillar architecture. In addition, and unexpectedly, we found that Ca2+ does not bind the free Aβ monomer. This implies that Ca2+ binding requires an architecture adopted by assembled peptides, and consequently is mediated through intermolecular interactions between adjacent peptides. This gives a mechanistic explanation to the enhancing effect on fibril maturation and indicates structural similarities between prefibrillar structures and mature amyloid. Taken together we expose how Ca2+ levels affect the delicate equilibrium between the monomeric and assembled Aβ and how fluctuations in vivo may contribute to development and progression of the disease.
  • Eriksson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging vs autopsy-A systematic review
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Radiology. - ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD. - 0720-048X. ; 89, s. 249-269
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background Postmortem imaging has been used for more than a century as a complement to medico-legal autopsies. The technique has also emerged as a possible alternative to compensate for the continuous decline in the number of clinical autopsies. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging for various types of findings, we performed this systematic literature review. Data sources The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library through January 7, 2015. Relevant publications were assessed for risk of bias using the QUADAS tool and were classified as low, moderate or high risk of bias according to pre-defined criteria. Autopsy and/or histopathology were used as reference standard. Findings The search generated 2600 abstracts, of which 340 were assessed as possibly relevant and read in full-text. After further evaluation 71 studies were finally included, of which 49 were assessed as having high risk of bias and 22 as moderate risk of bias. Due to considerable heterogeneity - in populations, techniques, analyses and reporting - of included studies it was impossible to combine data to get a summary estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of the various findings. Individual studies indicate, however, that imaging techniques might be useful for determining organ weights, and that the techniques seem superior to autopsy for detecting gas Conclusions and Implications In general, based on the current scientific literature, it was not possible to determine the diagnostic accuracy of postmortem imaging and its usefulness in conjunction with, or as an alternative to autopsy. To correctly determine the usefulness of postmortem imaging, future studies need improved planning, improved methodological quality and larger materials, preferentially obtained from multi-center studies. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Lundström, Jan O., et al. (författare)
  • The geographic distribution of mosquito species in Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association. - 1460-6127. ; 31, s. 21-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surveillance of the actual distribution of mosquito species in Northern Europe is fundamental for evaluating risk for emerging pathogens, and for research on potential vectors. The Swedish mosquito fauna composition and geographic distribution, originally described by Professor Christine Dahl in the 1970´s, included 43 species. We have compiled the information published from 1978 to 2012, and our own surveillance data from 2001 to 2013, and compared this with the species list and geographic distribution provided in “Taxonomy and geographic distribution of Swedish Culicidae” by Dahl (1977). New species detected during these 36 years were Culiseta (Culicella) ochroptera (Peus, 1935) published 1984, Aedes (Aedes) rossicus Dolbeskin, Goritzkaja & Mitrofanova, 1930 published 1986, Anopheles (Anopheles) beklemishevi published 1986, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) euedes (Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1912) published 2001, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918) first recorded in 2012, and Anopheles (Anopheles) algeriensis Theobald, 1903, first recorded in 2013. We provide maps with the distribution by province for each species, including historic information up until 1977, and new records from 1978 to 2013, showing the similarities and differences between the old and the new records. Important findings in recent years include the wide distribution of the Sindbis virus enzootic vector Culex (Culex) torrentium Martinii, 1925, and the more limited distribution of the potential West Nile virus vector Culex (Culex) pipiens Linnaeus, 1758. The updated list of mosquito species in Sweden now includes 49 species.
  • Olofsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Amide solvent protection analysis demonstrates that amyloid-beta(1-40) and amyloid-beta(1-42) form different fibrillar structures under identical conditions.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Biochem J. - 1470-8728. ; 404:1, s. 63-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AD (Alzheimer's disease) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by self-assembly and amyloid formation of the 39–43 residue long Ab (amyloid-b)-peptide. The most abundant species, Ab(1–40) and Ab(1–42), are both present within senile plaques, but Ab(1–42) peptides are considerably more prone to self-aggregation and are also essential for the development of AD. To understand the molecular and pathological mechanisms behind AD, a detailed knowledge of the amyloid structures of Ab-peptides is vital. In the present study we have used quenched hydrogen/deuterium-exchange NMR experiments to probe the structure of Ab(1–40) fibrils. The fibrils were prepared and analysed identically as in our previous study on Ab(1–42) fibrils, allowing a direct comparison of the two fibrillar structures. The solvent protection pattern of Ab(1–40) fibrils revealed two well-protected regions, consistent with a structural arrangement of two b-strands connected with a bend. This protection pattern partly resembles the pattern found in Ab(1–42) fibrils, but the Ab(1–40) fibrils display a significantly increased protection for the N-terminal residues Phe4–His14, suggesting that additional secondary structure is formed in this region. In contrast, the C-terminal residues Gly37–Val40 show a reduced protection that suggests a loss of secondary structure in this region and an altered filament assembly. The differences between the present study and other similar investigations suggest that subtle variations in fibril-preparation conditions may significantly affect the fibrillar architecture.
  • Olofsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Quenched hydrogen/deuterium exchange NMR characterization of amyloid-β peptide aggregates formed in the presence of Cu2+ or Zn2
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The FEBS Journal. - Wiley InterScience. - 1742-464X. ; 276:15, s. 4051-4060
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder causing synaptic impairment and neuronal cell death, is strongly correlated with aggregation of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). Divalent metal ions such as Cu2+ and Zn2+ are known to significantly affect the rate of aggregation and morphology of Aβ assemblies in vitro and are also found at elevated levels within cerebral plaques in vivo. The present investigation characterized the architecture of the aggregated forms of Aβ(1–40) and Aβ(1–42) in the presence or absence of either Cu2+ or Zn2+ using quenched hydrogen/deuterium exchange combined with solution NMR spectroscopy. The NMR analyses provide a quantitative and residue-specific structural characterization of metal-induced Aβ aggregates, showing that both the peptide sequence and the type of metal ion exert an impact on the final architecture. Common features among the metal-complexed peptide aggregates are two solvent-protected regions with an intervening minimum centered at Asn27, and a solvent-accessible N-terminal region, Asp1–Lys16. Our results suggest that Aβ in complex with either Cu2+ or Zn2+ can attain an aggregation-prone β-strand–turn–β-strand motif, similar to the motif found in fibrils, but where the metal binding to the N-terminal region guides the peptide into an assembly distinctly different from the fibril form.
  • Tieva, Åse, et al. (författare)
  • Effect on energy and macronutrient intake with partial replacement of external food supply by in-house cooking at a nursing home for older people in Sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Consumer Studies. - 1470-6423. ; 39:4, s. 369-379
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An increased awareness of the importance of nutrition for older people's health and quality of life has underpinned projects and quality improvements for the meal situation in care establishments. The present study took place in a nursing home in a village outside an average-sized town situated in mid-Sweden. Care staff had initiated a change from external catered meals to purchase the food and cook the main meals themselves. The intention was to increase flexibility in accommodating the requests and needs of the elderly and, in doing so, to achieve increased professional pride and satisfaction. To ensure that no negative effects resulted for the residents in the nursing home, outcomes were evaluated through the present intervention study. The objective was to investigate whether and, if so, how their energy and nutrient intake and weight were affected. At the start, only one main hot meal was exchanged for home cooking to avoid work load problems as no increased costs were allowed and no extra staff were to be recruited. The study population consisted of 21 residents, aged 69-97 years. Weight, energy and nutrient intake were recorded before and during the intervention by 3-day food records validated by Goldberg's cutoff method. The same 3 days of the weekSunday to Tuesdayand the same menus were used for both measurement periods. At group level, the energy intake corresponded to the estimated energy requirements, both at baseline and at follow-up, although the intervention resulted in a significantly higher energy intake from the meals cooked in the ward kitchens. Two-thirds of the residents (n=13) slightly increased in weight from baseline to follow-up, while two participants (with body mass index 27.5 kg/m(2) and 33.5 kg/m(2), respectively) lost 5.0 kg and 6.9 kg, respectively. The total protein intake was insufficient both at baseline and follow-up and only met the participants' needs to 8122% and 83 +/- 26%, respectively. In conclusion, the intervention resulted in no adverse consequences for participants in terms of energy and nutrient intake. Most participants were weight stable or had small increases in weight, and the greatest weight gain was observed in the lighter clients. The low protein intake at both time points causes concern and suggests the need for further nutritional interventions to optimize older people's protein intake.
  • Toren, Kjell, et al. (författare)
  • Vital capacity and COPD: the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. - 1178-2005. ; 11:1, s. 927-933
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Spirometric diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/vital capacity (VC), either as a fixed value <0.7 or below the lower limit of normal (LLN). Forced vital capacity (FVC) is a proxy for VC. The first aim was to compare the use of FVC and VC, assessed as the highest value of FVC or slow vital capacity (SVC), when assessing the FEV1/VC ratio in a general population setting. The second aim was to evaluate the characteristics of subjects with COPD who obtained a higher SVC than FVC. Methods: Subjects (n=1,050) aged 50-64 years were investigated with FEV1, FVC, and SVC after bronchodilation. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPDFVC was defined as FEV1/FVC <0.7, GOLDCOPD(VC) as FEV1/VC <0.7 using the maximum value of FVC or SVC, LLNCOPDFVC as FEV1/FVC below the LLN, and LLNCOPDVC as FEV1/VC below the LLN using the maximum value of FVC or SVC. Results: Prevalence of GOLDCOPD(FVC) was 10.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2-12.0) and the prevalence of LLNCOPDFVC was 9.5% (95% CI 7.8-11.4). When estimates were based on VC, the prevalence became higher; 16.4% (95% CI 14.3-18.9) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.5-17.9) for GOLDCOPD(VC) and LLNCOPDVC, respectively. The group of additional subjects classified as having COPD based on VC, had lower FEV1, more wheeze and higher residual volume compared to subjects without any COPD. Conclusion: The prevalence of COPD was significantly higher when the ratio FEV1/VC was calculated using the highest value of SVC or FVC compared with using FVC only. Subjects classified as having COPD when using the VC concept were more obstructive and with indications of air trapping. Hence, the use of only FVC when assessing airflow limitation may result in a considerable under diagnosis of subjects with mild COPD.
  • Arnqvist, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • En kunskapsbas : Sätt att organisera för att individanpassa skolgången
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: I rättan tid : Om ålder och skolstart. - Stockholm : Fritzes. - 978-91-38-23447-1 ; s. 67-87
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • De överväganden och förslag som redovisas i detta betänkande har tagits fram med utgångspunkt i en kunskapsbas. Kunskapsbasen består av dels översikter över aktuella forskningsresultat inom ett antal områden som har bäring på frågan om flexibel skolstart i grundskolan, dels några internationella utblickar. Vetenskapligt förankrade kunskapsöversikter har för utredningens räkning sammanställts av fyra forskare, nämligen professor Anders Arnqvist, Karlstads universitet, professor Sven Persson, Malmö högskola, fil dr Monika Vinterek, Umeå universitet och fil lic Helena Ackesjö, Linnéuniversitetet. Var och en har haft i uppdrag att inom respektive område redogöra för resultat inom svensk och internationell forskning från mitten av 1990-talet och senare. I uppdraget har ingått att uppmärksamma eventuella skillnader mellan olika elevgrupper samt effekter på både elevers kunskapsutveckling och sociala utveckling. I detta kapitel redovisas forskarnas egna sammanfattningar av forskningsöversikterna. Dessa återges i sin helhet i bilagorna 2–5. Av dem framgår också de frågeställningar och områden med bäring på flexibel skolstart som forskarna finner behov av att följa upp, utvärdera och beforska. Kunskapsbasen innehåller även en internationell utblick. I den återges hur barn på Nya Zeeland börjar skolan successivt på sin födelsedag och hur barn i England kan börja skolan vid fler tillfällen under läsåret. Lite mer utförligt redovisas dessutom diskussionen inför och införandet av rullande skolstart i Danmark och flexibel skolstart i Norge.
  • Backlund, U., et al. (författare)
  • Semi-Bloch Functions in Several Complex Variables
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geometric Analysis. - 1050-6926. ; 26:1, s. 463-473
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Let M be an n-dimensional complex manifold. A holomorphic function f:M→C is said to be semi-Bloch if for every λ∈C the function (Formula presented.) is normal on M. We characterize semi-Bloch functions on infinitesimally Kobayashi non-degenerate M in geometric as well as analytic terms. Moreover, we show that on such manifolds, semi-Bloch functions are normal.
  • Bjartell, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Prediction of clinical progression after radical prostatectomy in a nationwide population-based cohort
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology2013-01-01+01:00. - Taylor & Francis. - 2168-1805. ; 50:4, s. 255-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of this study was to create a model for predicting progression-free survival after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. Material and methods: The risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) was modelled in a cohort of 3452 men aged 70 years or younger who were primarily treated with radical prostatectomy after being diagnosed between 2003 and 2006 with localized prostate cancer [clinical stage T1c–T2, Gleason score 5–10, N0/NX, M0/MX, prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
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