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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Peterson G.) srt2:(2000-2004)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Peterson G.) > (2000-2004)

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  • Pfaller, M.A., et al. (författare)
  • Twelve years of fluconazole in clinical practice : Global-trends in species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Clinical Microbiology and Infection. - 1198-743X .- 1469-0691. ; 10:SUPPL. 1, s. 11-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We determined the species distribution and in-vitro susceptibility of 6082 bloodstream infection (BSI) isolates of Candida spp. collected from 250 medical centres in 32 nations over a 10-year period from 1992 through 2001. The species included 3401 C. albicans, 984 C. glabrata, 796 C. parapsilosis, 585 C. tropicalis, 153 C. krusei, 67 C. lusitaniae, 48 C. guilliermondii, 10 C. famata, 10 C. kefyr, six C. pelliculosa, five C. rugosa, four C. lipolytica, three C. dubliniensis, three C. inconspicua, two C. sake and one isolate each of C. lambica, C. norvegensis and C. zeylanoides. Minimum inhibitory concentration determinations were made using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards reference broth microdilution method. Variation in the rank order and frequency of the different species of Candida was observed over time and by geographic area. The proportion of BSI due to C. albicans and C. glabrata increased and C. parapsilosis decreased over time in Canada, the USA and Europe. C. glabrata was an infrequent cause of BSI in Latin America and the Asia-Pacific region. Very little variation in fluconazole susceptibility was observed among isolates of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. These species accounted for 78% of all BSI and remained highly susceptible (91-100% susceptible) to fluconazole from 1992 to 2001 irrespective of geographic origin. The prevalence of fluconazole resistance among C. glabrata isolates was variable both over time and among the various countries and regions. Resistance to fluconazole among C. glabrata isolates was greatest in the USA and varied by US census region (range 0-23%). These observations are generally encouraging relative to the sustained usefulness of fluconazole as a systemically active antifungal agent for the treatment of candida BSI. © 2004 Copyright by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
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  • Beral, V, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer - collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58515 women with breast cancer and 95067 women without the disease
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1532-1827. ; 87:11, s. 1234-1245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included 58515 women with invasive breast cancer and 95067 controls from 53 studies. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated, after stratifying by study, age, parity and, where appropriate, women's age when their first child was born and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The average consumption of alcohol reported by controls from developed countries was 6.0 g per day, i.e. about half a unit/drink of alcohol per day, and was greater in ever-smokers than never-smokers, (8.4 g per day and 5.0 g per day, respectively). Compared with women who reported drinking no alcohol, the relative risk of breast cancer was 1.32 (1.19 - 1.45, P < 0.00001) for an intake of 35 - 44 g per day alcohol, and 1.46 (1.33 - 1.61, P < 0.00001) for greater than or equal to 45 g per day alcohol. The relative risk of breast cancer increased by 7.1% (95% CI 5.5-8.7%; P<0.00001) for each additional 10 g per day intake of alcohol, i.e. for each extra unit or drink of alcohol consumed on a daily basis. This increase was the same in ever-smokers and never-smokers (7.1 % per 10 g per day, P < 0.00001, in each group). By contrast, the relationship between smoking and breast cancer was substantially confounded by the effect of alcohol. When analyses were restricted to 22 255 women with breast cancer and 40 832 controls who reported drinking no alcohol, smoking was not associated with breast cancer (compared to never-smokers, relative risk for ever-smokers= 1.03, 95% CI 0.98 - 1.07, and for current smokers=0.99, 0.92 - 1.05). The results for alcohol and for tobacco did not vary substantially across studies, study designs, or according to 15 personal characteristics of the women; nor were the findings materially confounded by any of these factors. If the observed relationship for alcohol is causal, these results suggest that about 4% of the breast cancers in developed countries are attributable to alcohol. In developing countries, where alcohol consumption among controls averaged only 0.4 g per day, alcohol would have a negligible effect on the incidence of breast cancer. In conclusion, smoking has little or no independent effect on the risk of developing breast cancer; the effect of alcohol on breast cancer needs to be interpreted in the context of its beneficial effects, in moderation, on cardiovascular disease and its harmful effects on cirrhosis and cancers of the mouth, larynx, oesophagus and liver. (C) 2002 Cancer Research UK.
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  • Magnusson, J, et al. (författare)
  • A kinetic study in adults with food hypersensitivity assessed as eosinophil activation in fecal samples
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 33:8, s. 1052-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated food hypersensitivity affecting the gut is difficult to evaluate, and objective tools to diagnose local gastrointestinal (GI) inflammatory reactions are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether allergic manifestations in adults with a history of food-related GI symptoms could be assessed in feces during symptomatic and non-symptomatic periods, using the surrogate markers, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil protein X (EPX) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). METHODS: Thirteen subjects with food hypersensitivity-related GI symptoms, confirmed by a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC), were subjected to an open kinetic food challenge design for 6 weeks. Symptoms were recorded and scored during the 3-week study period and stool samples were obtained every day. The surrogate markers ECP, EPX and MPO were measured in the supernatants from feces samples. RESULTS: A significant increase in abdominal pain, distension and flatulence was observed during challenge, with a gradual decrease during elimination diet. Both between days and subjects, EPX levels were more frequently increased compared to ECP and MPO. Individuals with a history of a short duration of symptoms had significantly higher mean levels of EPX and MPO than those with a longer duration of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: An overall increase in levels of eosinophil markers, in particular EPX, was observed in feces from patients with food-related GI symptoms. However, rather than being a tool to differentiate symptomatic from non-symptomatic periods, EPX might be used for detecting an ongoing clinical or subclinical chronic inflammation, that may have an impact on the patient's clinical course of GI symptoms.
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