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Sökning: WFRF:(Peterson G.) > (2010-2014)

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1.
  • Thompson, P. M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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2.
  • Neugut, A., et al. (författare)
  • Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Oncology. - 1474-5488. ; 13:11, s. 1141-1151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected women. Methods Individual data from 117 epidemiological studies, including 118 964 women with invasive breast cancer and 306 091 without the disease, none of whom had used menopausal hormone therapy, were included in the analyses. We calculated adjusted relative risks (RRs) associated with menarche and menopause for breast cancer overall, and by tumour histology and by oestrogen receptor expression. Findings Breast cancer risk increased by a factor of 1.050 (95% CI 1.044-1.057; p < 0.0001) for every year younger at menarche, and independently by a smaller amount (1.029, 1.025-1.032; p < 0.0001), for every year older at menopause. Premenopausal women had a greater risk of breast cancer than postmenopausal women of an identical age (RR at age 45-54 years 1.43, 1.33-1.52, p < 0.001). All three of these associations were attenuated by increasing adiposity among postmenopausal women, but did not vary materially by women's year of birth, ethnic origin, childbearing history, smoking, alcohol consumption, or hormonal contraceptive use. All three associations were stronger for lobular than for ductal tumours (p < 0.006 for each comparison). The effect of menopause in women of an identical age and trends by age at menopause were stronger for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease (p < 0.01 for both comparisons). Interpretation The effects of menarche and menopause on breast cancer risk might not be acting merely by lengthening women's total number of reproductive years. Endogenous ovarian hormones are more relevant for oestrogen receptor-positive disease than for oestrogen receptor-negative disease and for lobular than for ductal tumours. Funding Cancer Research UK.
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4.
  • Hudson, Thomas J., et al. (författare)
  • International network of cancer genome projects
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 464:7291, s. 993-998
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.
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5.
  • Hudson, Thomas J., et al. (författare)
  • International network of cancer genome projects
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7291, s. 993-998
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) was launched to coordinate large-scale cancer genome studies in tumours from 50 different cancer types and/or subtypes that are of clinical and societal importance across the globe. Systematic studies of more than 25,000 cancer genomes at the genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic levels will reveal the repertoire of oncogenic mutations, uncover traces of the mutagenic influences, define clinically relevant subtypes for prognosis and therapeutic management, and enable the development of new cancer therapies.
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6.
  • Beral, V., et al. (författare)
  • Ovarian Cancer and Body Size: Individual Participant Meta-Analysis Including 25,157 Women with Ovarian Cancer from 47 Epidemiological Studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - Public Library of Science. - 1549-1676. ; 9:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished, and describe these relationships. Methods and Findings: Individual data on 25,157 women with ovarian cancer and 81,311 women without ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies were collected, checked, and analysed centrally. Adjusted relative risks of ovarian cancer were calculated, by height and by body mass index. Ovarian cancer risk increased significantly with height and with body mass index, except in studies using hospital controls. For other study designs, the relative risk of ovarian cancer per 5 cm increase in height was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.09; p<0.001); this relationship did not vary significantly by women's age, year of birth, education, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having had a hysterectomy, having first degree relatives with ovarian or breast cancer, use of oral contraceptives, or use of menopausal hormone therapy. For body mass index, there was significant heterogeneity (p<0.001) in the findings between ever-users and never-users of menopausal hormone therapy, but not by the 11 other factors listed above. The relative risk for ovarian cancer per 5 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.07-1.13; p<0.001) in never-users and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.92-0.99; p = 0.02) in ever-users of hormone therapy. Conclusions: Ovarian cancer is associated with height and, among never-users of hormone therapy, with body mass index. In high-income countries, both height and body mass index have been increasing in birth cohorts now developing the disease. If all other relevant factors had remained constant, then these increases in height and weight would be associated with a 3% increase in ovarian cancer incidence per decade.
7.
  • Beral, V., et al. (författare)
  • Ovarian cancer and smoking: individual participant meta-analysis including 28 114 women with ovarian cancer from 51 epidemiological studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - Elsevier. - 1474-5488. ; 13:9, s. 946-956
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence. Methods Eligible epidemiological studies were identified by electronic searches, review articles, and discussions with colleagues. Individual participant data for 28 114 women with and 94 942 without ovarian cancer from 51 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally, yielding adjusted relative risks (RRs) of ovarian cancer in smokers compared with never smokers. Findings After exclusion of studies with hospital controls, in which smoking could have affected recruitment, overall ovarian cancer incidence was only slightly increased in current smokers compared with women who had never smoked (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11, p=0.01). Of 17 641 epithelial cancers with specified histology, 2314 (13%) were mucinous, 2360 (13%) endometrioid, 969 (5%) clear-cell, and 9086 (52%) serous. Smoking-related risks varied substantially across these subtypes (p(heterogeneity)<0.0001). For mucinous cancers, incidence was increased in current versus never smokers (1.79, 95% CI 1.60-2.00, p<0.0001), but the increase was mainly in borderline malignant rather than in fully malignant tumours (2.25, 95% CI 1.91-2.65 vs 1.49, 1.28-1.73; p(heterogeneity)=0.01; almost half the mucinous tumours were only borderline malignant). Both endometrioid (0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.92, p=0.001) and clear-cell ovarian cancer risks (0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.97, p=0.03) were reduced in current smokers, and there was no significant association for serous ovarian cancers (0.99, 95% CI 0.93-1.06, p=0.8). These associations did not vary significantly by 13 sociodemographic and personal characteristics of women including their body-mass index, parity, and use of alcohol, oral contraceptives, and menopausal hormone therapy. Interpretation The excess of mucinous ovarian cancers in smokers, which is mainly of tumours of borderline malignancy, is roughly counterbalanced by the deficit of endometrioid and clear-cell ovarian cancers. The substantial variation in smoking-related risks by tumour subtype is important for understanding ovarian carcinogenesis.
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8.
  • Shi, Leming, et al. (författare)
  • The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC)-II study of common practices for the development and validation of microarray-based predictive models
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Biotechnology. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1087-0156. ; 28:8, s. 827-838
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gene expression data from microarrays are being applied to predict preclinical and clinical endpoints, but the reliability of these predictions has not been established. In the MAQC-II project, 36 independent teams analyzed six microarray data sets to generate predictive models for classifying a sample with respect to one of 13 endpoints indicative of lung or liver toxicity in rodents, or of breast cancer, multiple myeloma or neuroblastoma in humans. In total, &gt;30,000 models were built using many combinations of analytical methods. The teams generated predictive models without knowing the biological meaning of some of the endpoints and, to mimic clinical reality, tested the models on data that had not been used for training. We found that model performance depended largely on the endpoint and team proficiency and that different approaches generated models of similar performance. The conclusions and recommendations from MAQC-II should be useful for regulatory agencies, study committees and independent investigators that evaluate methods for global gene expression analysis.
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9.
  • Gore, C., et al. (författare)
  • Treatment and secondary prevention effects of the probiotics Lactobacillus paracasei or Bifidobacterium lactis on early infant eczema : randomized controlled trial with follow-up until age 3 years
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894 .- 1365-2222. ; 42:1, s. 112-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Allergic disease has been associated with altered intestinal microbiota. Therefore, probiotics have been suggested as a potential treatment for eczema.Objective We investigated whether dietary supplementation of infants with eczema at age 3-6 months with Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-2116 or Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I3446 had a treatment effect or altered allergic disease progression.Methods Primary outcome included eczema severity (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis, SCORAD) 3 months post-randomization. Secondary: SCORAD (other visits); infant dermatitis quality of life (IDQoL); gastrointestinal permeability; urinary eosinophilic protein X; allergen- sensitization; allergic symptoms (age 12, 18, 36 months). A total of 208 infants aged 3-6 months with physician-diagnosed eczema were recruited; 137/208 (SCORAD &gt;= 10, consuming &gt;= 200 mL standard formula/day) were randomized to daily supplements containing L. paracasei or B. lactis or placebo for a 3-month period, while receiving extensively hydrolysed whey-formula (dairy-free diet). There were two open observational groups, one group exclusively breastfed (n = 22) and the other, standard formula-fed (n = 49). Trial number: ISRCTN41490500.Results Eczema severity decreased significantly over time in all groups. No significant difference was observed between randomized groups after 12-week treatment-period (SCORAD-score pre-/post-intervention: B. lactis 25.9 [95% CI: 22.8-29.2] to 12.8 [9.416.6]; L. paracasei 25.4 [22.1-29] to 12.5 [9.2-16.4]; placebo 26.9 [23.4-30.6] to 11.8 [9.6-14.3]; P = 0.7). Results were similar when analysis was controlled for allergen-sensitization, or when only sensitized infants were analysed. No differences were found for secondary outcomes. No difference was observed in SCORAD-score between randomized and observational groups.Conclusion and Clinical Relevance We found no benefit from supplementation with B. lactis or L. paracasei in the treatment of eczema, when given as an adjunct to basic topical treatment, and no effect on the progression of allergic disease from age 1 to 3 years.
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10.
  • Green, Richard E., et al. (författare)
  • Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 346:6215, s. 1335-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To provide context for the diversification of archosaurs-the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds-we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians: Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution within crocodilians at all levels, including nucleotide substitutions, indels, transposable element content and movement, gene family evolution, and chromosomal synteny. When placed within the context of related taxa including birds and turtles, this suggests that the common ancestor of all of these taxa also exhibited slow genome evolution and that the comparatively rapid evolution is derived in birds. The data also provided the opportunity to analyze heterozygosity in crocodilians, which indicates a likely reduction in population size for all three taxa through the Pleistocene. Finally, these data combined with newly published bird genomes allowed us to reconstruct the partial genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs, thereby providing a tool to investigate the genetic starting material of crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs.
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