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Sökning: WFRF:(Piccolo C.)

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  • Strong, K., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of ACE-FTS N2O measurements
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 8, s. 4759-4786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Wetzel, G., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of MIPAS-ENVISAT H2O operational data collected between July 2002 and March 2004
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics. - 1680-7316. ; 13:11, s. 5791-5811
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Water vapour (H2O) is one of the operationally retrieved key species of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument aboard the Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) which was launched into its sun-synchronous orbit on 1 March 2002 and operated until April 2012. Within the MIPAS validation activities, independent observations from balloons, aircraft, satellites, and ground-based stations have been compared to European Space Agency (ESA) version 4.61 operational H2O data comprising the time period from July 2002 until March 2004 where MIPAS measured with full spectral resolution. No significant bias in the MIPAS H2O data is seen in the lower stratosphere (above the hygropause) between about 15 and 30 km. Differences of H2O quantities observed by MIPAS and the validation instruments are mostly well within the combined total errors in this altitude region. In the upper stratosphere (above about 30 km), a tendency towards a small positive bias (up to about 10 %) is present in the MIPAS data when compared to its balloon-borne counterpart MIPAS-B, to the satellite instruments HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment) and ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment, Fourier Transform Spectrometer), and to the millimeter-wave airborne sensor AMSOS (Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System). In the mesosphere the situation is unclear due to the occurrence of different biases when comparing HALOE and ACE-FTS data. Pronounced deviations between MIPAS and the correlative instruments occur in the lowermost stratosphere and upper troposphere, a region where retrievals of H2O are most challenging. Altogether it can be concluded that MIPAS H2O profiles yield valuable information on the vertical distribution of H2O in the stratosphere with an overall accuracy of about 10 to 30% and a precision of typically 5 to 15% - well within the predicted error budget, showing that these global and continuous data are very valuable for scientific studies. However, in the region around the tropopause retrieved MIPAS H2O profiles are less reliable, suffering from a number of obstacles such as retrieval boundary and cloud effects, sharp vertical discontinuities, and frequent horizontal gradients in both temperature and H2O volume mixing ratio (VMR). Some profiles are characterized by retrieval instabilities.
  • Menzies, Scott W, et al. (författare)
  • Dermoscopic Evaluation of Nodular Melanoma.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: JAMA dermatology (Chicago, Ill.). - 2168-6084. ; 149:6, s. 699-709
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE Nodular melanoma (NM) is a rapidly progressing potentially lethal skin tumor for which early diagnosis is critical. OBJECTIVE To determine the dermoscopy features of NM. DESIGN Eighty-three cases of NM, 134 of invasive non-NM, 115 of nodular benign melanocytic tumors, and 135 of nodular nonmelanocytic tumors were scored for dermoscopy features using modified and previously described methods. Lesions were separated into amelanotic/hypomelanotic or pigmented to assess outcomes. SETTING Predominantly hospital-based clinics from 5 continents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratios for features/models for the diagnosis of melanoma. RESULTS Nodular melanoma occurred more frequently as amelanotic/hypomelanotic (37.3%) than did invasive non-NM (7.5%). Pigmented NM had a more frequent (compared with invasive non-NM; in descending order of odds ratio) symmetrical pigmentation pattern (5.8% vs 0.8%), large-diameter vessels, areas of homogeneous blue pigmentation, symmetrical shape, predominant peripheral vessels, blue-white veil, pink color, black color, and milky red/pink areas. Pigmented NM less frequently displayed an atypical broadened network, pigment network or pseudonetwork, multiple blue-gray dots, scarlike depigmentation, irregularly distributed and sized brown dots and globules, tan color, irregularly shaped depigmentation, and irregularly distributed and sized dots and globules of any color. The most important positive correlating features of pigmented NM vs nodular nonmelanoma were peripheral black dots/globules, multiple brown dots, irregular black dots/globules, blue-white veil, homogeneous blue pigmentation, 5 to 6 colors, and black color. A model to classify a lesion as melanocytic gave a high sensitivity (>98.0%) for both nodular pigmented and nonnodular pigmented melanoma but a lower sensitivity for amelanotic/hypomelanotic NM (84%). A method for diagnosing amelanotic/hypomelanotic malignant lesions (including basal cell carcinoma) gave a 93% sensitivity and 70% specificity for NM. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE When a progressively growing, symmetrically patterned melanocytic nodule is identified, NM needs to be excluded.
  • Moreau, D., et al. (författare)
  • A two-time-scale dynamic-model approach for magnetic and kinetic profile control in advanced tokamak scenarios on JET
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - 0029-5515. ; 48:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Real-time simultaneous control of several radially distributed magnetic and kinetic plasma parameters is being investigated on JET, in view of developing integrated control of advanced tokamak scenarios. This paper describes the new model-based profile controller which has been implemented during the 2006-2007 experimental campaigns. The controller aims to use the combination of heating and current drive (H&CD) systems-and optionally the poloidal field (PF) system-in an optimal way to regulate the evolution of plasma parameter profiles such as the safety factor, q(x), and gyro-normalized temperature gradient,. rho*(Te)(x). In the first part of the paper, a technique for the experimental identification of a minimal dynamic plasma model is described, taking into account the physical structure and couplings of the transport equations, but making no quantitative assumptions on the transport coefficients or on their dependences. To cope with the high dimensionality of the state space and the large ratio between the time scales involved, the model identification procedure and the controller design both make use of the theory of singularly perturbed systems by means of a two-time-scale approximation. The second part of the paper provides the theoretical basis for the controller design. The profile controller is articulated around two composite feedback loops operating on the magnetic and kinetic time scales, respectively, and supplemented by a feedforward compensation of density variations. For any chosen set of target profiles, the closest self-consistent state achievable with the available actuators is uniquely defined. It is reached, with no steady state offset, through a near-optimal
  • Rantamäki, K., et al. (författare)
  • LH wave coupling over ITER-like distances at JET
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas : 17th Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas. - American Institute of Physics (AIP). - 0735404445 - 978-073540444-1 ; s. 261-264
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Good coupling of LH power at plasma-launcher distance of 15 cm has been obtained at JET. Near-gas injection is used to increase the density in front of the grill. The role of LH power in the density increase at constant gas level is demonstrated. For the first time at JET the temperature of the hot spots caused by parasitic absorption of LH power has been measured.
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